Social Science

Socialization

TAKE HOME EXAM

______1. ______is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self identity

a. Human development

b. Socialization

c. Behavior medication

d. Imitation

_____2. All of the following statements regarding socialization are TRUE, except:

a. Socialization is essential for the individual’s survival and for human development.

b. Socialization is essential for the survival and stability of society.

c. Socialization enables a society to “reproduce” itself by passing on cultural content from one generation to the next.

d. Socialization is a learning process that takes place primarily during childhood.

_____3. In the debate over ‘nature” and “nurture,” or heredity and environment, sociologists:

a. Focus on how genetic makeup is a major factor in shaping human behavior.

b. Suggest that genetic inheritance underlies many forms of social behavior, including war and peace.

c. Disagree with the notion that biological principles can be used to explain all human behavior.

d. Do not acknowledge that some aspects of people’s physical makeup largely are determined by heredity.

_____4. Harry and Margaret Harlow’s experiment with rhesus monkeys demonstrated that:

a. Food was more important to the monkeys than warmth, affection, and physical comfort.

b. Monkeys cannot distinguish between a nonliving “mother substitute’ and their own mother

c. Socialization is not important to rhesus monkeys; their behavior is purely instinctive.

d. Without socialization, young monkey to do not learn normal social or emotional behavior.

_____5. The case of Anna illustrates the effects of _____abuse.

a. Sexual

b. Emotional

c. Physical

d. All of the above

______6. Extensive therapy used as an attempt to socialize Genie:

a. Met with limited success.

b. Met with greater success than sociologists first predicted.

c. Ensured that she could eventually become self-sufficient.

d. Illustrates the effects of socio-biology

_____7. Sigmund Freud divided the mind into three interrelated parts; which of the following is NOT one of these?

a. Id

b. Ego

c. Super ego

d. Me

______8. According to Sigmund Freud, the _____consists of the moral and ethical aspects of personality.

a. Id

b. Ego

c. Super ego

d. Libido

______9. According to Sigmund Freud, the _____is the component of personality that includes of the individual’s basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification.

a. Id

b. Ego

c. Superego

d. Libido

______10. Which of the following is not one of Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

a. Preoperational

b. Concrete operational

c. Formal operational

d. Post operational

11. The ______refers to the way in which a person’s sense of self of

self is derived from the perceptions of others.

a. personality development

b. the looking-glass self

c. the “I: and the “me”

d. the human psyche

____12. _________is the founder of the looking-glass self.

a. George Herbert Mead

b. Charles Horton Cooley

c. Sigmund Freud

d. Jean Piaget

_____13. Charles Horton Cooley’s looking-glass self provides insights on:

a. the limitations of biological explanations of human behavior

b. how people develop a self-identity

c. the importance of the generalized other

d. the stages of moral development

______14. All of the following are elements in the looking-glass self,

except:

a. we imagine how we appear to those around us

b. we interpret others reactions

c. we determine whether or not other people’s evaluations are

accurate

d. we develop a self-concept

______15._____is the process by which a person mentally assumes the role

of another person in order to understand the world from that

person’s point of view.

a. generalized others

b. role-taking

c. significant others

d. self-concept

______16. ______are those persons whose are, affection, and approval are

especially desired and who are most important in the development

of the self.

a. generalized other

b. actualized self

c. gender role

d. significant other

______17. Social psychologist George Herbert Mead divided the self into

the:

a. I and the me

b. Id, ego, and superego

c. sensorimotor, preoperational, and concrete operational stage

d. none of the above

______18. The I is the _____element of self.

a. subjective

b. objective

c. natural

d. superfluous

______19. The me is:

a. the objective element of self

b. subjective in nature

c. the spontaneous and unique traits of each person

d. developed before the I

______20. A child becomes a doctor, parent, superhero, or minister

during the:

a. play stage

b. game stage

c. generalized stage

d. imitation stage

______21. During the _____stage of self-development, individuals under-

stand not only their own social position, but also the position of

Other around them.

a. imitation

b. play

c. generalized

d. game

______22. According to Freud, the _____is the rational, reality-oriented

component of personality that imposes restrictions on the

innate pleasure-seeking drives of individuals.

a. id

b. ego

c. superego

d. libido

______23. According to Freud, the _____, or conscience, consists of the

moral and ethical aspects of personality.

a. id

b. ego

c. superego

d. libido

______24. In Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective, the newborn

child’s personality is all_____.

a. id

b. superego

c. superego

d. libido

_______25. Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget was a pioneer in the field of

____________, which relates to changes over time in how

people think.

a. psychoanalysis

b. psychosocial development

c. cognitive development

d. interactionism

_______26. Jean Piaget believed that in each stage of development (from

birth to adolescence), children’s activities are governed by

their:

a. individual psyches

b. perception of the world them

c. socialization

d. interactions with others

______27. Lawrence Kohlberg elaborated on Piaget’s theories by conducting

a series of studies in which respondents were presented with a/an

a. moral dilemma

b. ethical principle

c. philosophical problem

d. tautology

_____ 28. According to Carol Gilligan, the key weakness of Lawrence

Kohlberg’s work is that it:

a. underestimates human potential for immorality

b. was based only on male subjects

c. ignores key social psychological insights

d. overemphasizes the subconscious mind

_____29. _______are the persons, groups, or institutions that each us what

we need to know in order to participate in society.

a. interaction forums

b. agents of socialization

c. sources of social reference

d. role sets

_____30. Psychologist Jean Piaget believed that in each stage of human development (from birth through adolescence), children’s activities are governed by their______

a. individual psyches

b. Perception of the world around them

c. Socialization

d. Interactions with others

____31. According to Psychologists Jean Piaget, in the ____stage, children understand the world only through sensory contact and immediate action because they cannot engage in symbolic thought or use language.

a. Sensorimotor

b. Formal operational

c. Preoperational

d. Concrete operational

____32. Psychologist Carol Gilligan concluded that women and men often have divergent views on morality based on differences in _____and life experiences.

a. Social class

b. Education

c. Religion

d. socialization

_____33. According to sociologist Charles Horton Cooley, the _____refers to the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others.

a. Human psyche

b. Looking-glass self

c. Process of role-taking

d. Significant others

_____34. We are exposed to many____throughout our lifetime. According to the text, the most pervasive ones in childhood include the family, the school, peer groups, and the mass media.

a. Total institutions

b. Moral structures

c. Agents of socialization

d. Counter groups

____35. According to the text, the ____is the most important agent of socialization in all societies.

a. School

b. Peer group

c. Family

d. Mass media

_____36. Theorists using a _____perspective emphasize that families serve important duties in society because they are primary source for the procreation and socialization of children,

a. Conflict

b. Symbolic interactionist

c. Postmodern

d. Functionalist

_____37. ____theorists assert that students have different experiences in the school system depending on their social class, their racial/ethnic background, the neighborhood in which they live, and their sex/gender.

a. Postmodern

b. Conflict

c. Symbolic interactionist

d. Functionalist

_____38. A____is a group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social positon, and (usually) similar age.

a. Reference group

b. Peer group

c. Social group

d. Primary group

______39. The _____functions as a socializing agent in several ways: (1) they inform us about events; (2) they introduce us to a wide variety of people; (3) they provide an array of viewpoints on current issues; (4) they make us aware of products and services, and (5) they entertain us by providing the opportunity to live vicariously (through other people’s experiences).

a. Family

b. School

c. Peer group’

d. Mass media

______40. ______is the process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one’s background and previous experience. It may be voluntary or involuntary.

a. Social reevaluation

b. Resocialization

c. Value clarification

d. Individual devaluation

TRUE-FALSE

______41. Child maltreatment includes physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional mistreatment of children and young adolescents.

______42. In the case of “Genie,” extensive therapy was used in an attempt to socialize her and develop her language abilities. These efforts were highly successful and at about age eighteen, she was able to live independently.

______43. According to sociologist George Herbert mead, generalized other are those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self.

______44. The family is the most important agent of socialization in all societies. From infancy, our families transmit cultural and social values to us.

______45. Recent studies have shown that US children, on average, are spending less time each year in front of TV sets, computers, and video games, and spending more time in the school.

______46. Resocialization is the process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one’s background and previous experiences. Resocialization is strictly voluntary.

______47. Jails and prisons are examples of total institutions. In these settings, people are totally stripped of their former selves or depersonalized – through a degradation ceremony.

______48. Based on his findings presented with moral development, psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg identified the conventional level (age ten through adulthood) as the stage in which people are most concerned with how they are perceived by their peers and how one conforms to rules.

______49. According to sociologists George Herbert Mead, generalized other are those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self.

______50. What is the most frequent form of child maltreatment?

a. Physical abuse

b. Emotional abuse

c. Criminal sexual assault

d. neglect

Socialization

TAKE HOME EXAM

______1. ______is the lifelong process of social interaction through which

individuals acquire a self identity

a.

Human development

b.

Socialization

c.

Behavior medication

d.

Imitation

_____2.

All of the following statements regarding socialization are TRUE, except:

a.

Socialization is essential for the individual’s survival and for human

development.

b.

Socialization is essential for the survival and stability of society.

c.

Socialization enables a s

ociety to “reproduce” itself by passing on

cultural content from one generation to the next.

d.

Socialization is a learning process that takes place primarily during

childhood.

_____3. In the debate over ‘nature” and “nurture,” or heredity and environment,

s

ociologists:

a.

Focus on how genetic makeup is a major factor in shaping human

behavior.

b.

Suggest that genetic inheritance underlies many forms of social

behavior, including war and peace.

c.

Disagree with the notion that biological principles can be used to exp

lain

all human behavior.

d.

Do not acknowledge that some aspects of people’s physical makeup

largely are determined by heredity.

_____4. Harry and Margaret Harlow’s experiment with rhesus monkeys

demonstrated that:

Socialization

TAKE HOME EXAM

______1. ______is the lifelong process of social interaction through which

individuals acquire a self identity

a. Human development

b. Socialization

c. Behavior medication

d. Imitation

_____2. All of the following statements regarding socialization are TRUE, except:

a. Socialization is essential for the individual’s survival and for human

development.

b. Socialization is essential for the survival and stability of society.

c. Socialization enables a society to “reproduce” itself by passing on

cultural content from one generation to the next.

d. Socialization is a learning process that takes place primarily during

childhood.

_____3. In the debate over ‘nature” and “nurture,” or heredity and environment,

sociologists:

a. Focus on how genetic makeup is a major factor in shaping human

behavior.

b. Suggest that genetic inheritance underlies many forms of social

behavior, including war and peace.

c. Disagree with the notion that biological principles can be used to explain

all human behavior.

d. Do not acknowledge that some aspects of people’s physical makeup

largely are determined by heredity.

_____4. Harry and Margaret Harlow’s experiment with rhesus monkeys

demonstrated that:

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