Social Science

1)

True or False. Racism tends to intensify during periods of economic uncertainty and high rates of immigration.​

(1pts)

True False

2)

True or False. Although the United States had colonial rule over the Philippines from 1898 to 1946, Filipinos were not considered citizens of the United States.​

(1pts)

True False

3)

​__________ is the term for a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes.

(1pts)

Tribal group

Ethnic group

Culture

Race

4)

​The term ethnicity refers to __________.

(1pts)

a person’s cultural background or national origin

a group of people who were all born in the same location

people who share a racial identity

feelings of ethnocentrism

5)

Sociologists use the term __________ for a group that is advantaged by greater power and access to resources in a society

(1pts)

multilateral group

subordinate group

minority group

dominant group

6)

Sociologists use the term __________ for a group whose members are disadvantaged by physical or cultural characteristics, are subjected to unequal treatment by the controlling group, and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.​

(1pts)

subordinate group

majority group

dominant group

multilateral group

7)

__________ refers to the tendency to regard one’s own culture and group as the standard, and thus superior, whereas all other groups are seen as inferior.​

(1pts)

Stereotyping

Ethnocentrism

Prejudice

Discrimination

8)

The __________ states that people who are disappointed in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of assertiveness toward others.​

(1pts)

authoritarian personality principle

social learning theory

social convergence hypothesis

frustration–aggression hypothesis

9)

Children are not “naturally” prejudiced. Prejudice and discrimination are reinforced when relatives and friends reward children with smiles and laughs for telling derogatory jokes or making negative comments about outgroup members. This is the basic framework of the __________.​

(1pts)

social learning theory

authoritarian-personality thesis

unprejudiced discrimination theory

frustration–aggression hypothesis

10)

​The term __________ refers to the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.

(1pts)

discrimination

racism

genocide

prejudice

11)

A bank consistently denies loans to people of color. This is an example of __________ discrimination.​

(1pts)

uniform

conformist

individual

institutional

12)

The __________ states that when people from divergent groups are exposed to each other, favorable attitudes and behavior develop when certain factors are present.​

(1pts)

social behavior thesis

contact hypothesis

relational hypothesis

functionalist perspective

13)

Prior to the Civil Rights Act, Jim Crow laws in the U.S. South mandated the systematic physical and social separation of whites and African Americans in all areas of public life. This is an example of __________.​

(1pts)

de jure segregation

de faccia segregation

de facto segregation

miscegenation

14)

True or False. A transgender person is an individual whose gender identity does not match the person’s assigned identity.​

(1pts)

True False

15)

True or False. Gender refers to the socially and socially constructed differences between males and females.​

(1pts)

True False

16)

The term __________ refers to the process of treating people as if they were things, not human beings. Typically, this occurs when we judge people on the basis of their physical appearance rather than on the basis of their individual qualities or actions.​

(1pts)

reification

rationalization

mechanization

objectification

17)

What is the term for extreme prejudice directed at gays?​

(1pts)

heterophobia

homophobia

sexism

genderism

18)

__________ refers to the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process.​

(1pts)

Gender role

Sexual identity

Gender identity

Sexual role

19)

__________ is the term for the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.​

(1pts)

Sexism

Homophobia

Sexual orientation

Patriliny

20)

Sexism is interwoven with __________, which is a hierarchical system of social organization where cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men.​

(1pts)

monoarchy

polyarchy

matriarchy

patriarchy

21)

In most hunting and gathering societies,___________________________.​

(1pts)

men dominate because they have the ability to provide all of the food necessary for survival

women control the food surplus in these societies

relationships between women and men tend to be cooperative and relatively egalitarian

women are subordinate economic partners with men

22)

The assignment of chores to children by parents typically results in______________________.​

(1pts)

girls being more often responsible for caring for younger brothers and sisters

chore assignments tending to be gender-neutral when made by mothers

maintenance chores being assigned to girls

domestic chores being assigned to boys

23)

In discussing peers and gender socialization, the text points out that_____________________.​

(1pts)

today peer groups of both sexes tend not to promote gender roles

female peer groups place more pressure on girls to do “feminine” things than male peer groups place on boys to do “masculine” things

peer groups actually have little influence on adolescent development

male peer groups place more pressure on boys to do “masculine” things than female peer groups place on girls to do “feminine” things

24)

The text cites a comprehensive study of gender bias in schools; the study suggests that girls’ self-esteem is undermined in school through a number of experiences, including_____________________.​

(1pts)

sexual harassment by male teachers

the stereotyping and invisibility of females in science and math texts

direct rejection by instructors

a relative surplus of attention from teachers

25)

Occupational segregation contributes to the __________, which refers to the disparity between women’s and men’s earnings.​

(1pts)

comparable worth distinction

sexual wage differentiation

pay gap

domestic divide

26)

True or False. Most U.S. family households are made up of a married couple with one or more children under the age of 18.​

(1pts)

True False

27)

True or False. Research suggests that those people in sustained relationships such as marriage and cohabitation find sexual activity to be the most satisfying emotionally and physically.​

(1pts)

True False

28)

True or False. Over the last fifty years in the United States, the number of households comprised of single men and single women living alone has been increasing.​

(1pts)

True False

29)

What constitutes a “family” has been widely debated. For many years, the standard sociological definition of family was __________.​

(1pts)

a social network of people into which a person is born, composed of relatives, parents, and children who live in the same household

a group of people who are related to one another by bonds of blood, marriage, or adoption and who live together, form an economic unit, and bear and raise children

a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption

a group of people that consists of a husband and wife, children from previous marriages, and children (if any) from the new marriage

30)

According to sociologist Judy Root Aulette, “families we choose” include blood ties and legal ties, but they also include __________, persons who are not actually related by blood but who are accepted as family members.​

(1pts)

informal kin

generalized kin

fictive kin

secondary kin

31)

With the advent of industrialization and urbanization, maintaining the __________ family pattern becomes more difficult. Increasingly, young people move from rural to urban areas in search of employment in the industrializing sector of the economy. At that time, the __________ family typically becomes the predominant family pattern in the society.​

(1pts)

nuclear; conventional

nuclear; extended

blended; extended

extended; nuclear

32)

In preindustrial societies, kinship is usually traced through one parent (unilineally). The most common pattern of unilineal descent is __________, which is a system of tracing descent through the father’s side of the family.​

(1pts)

patricentric descent

patrilocal descent

patriarchal descent

patrilineal descent

33)

The cultural practice of marrying within one’s own group is called __________.

(1pts)

homogamy

exogamy

endogamy

heterogamy

34)

Emile Durkheim saw the family as a microcosm of society. He argued that, much like in society generally,____________________________.​

(1pts)

females are socialized to be passive and males are socialized to be aggressive

a division of labor contributes to greater efficiency in marriages and families

men’s domination over women existed long before private ownership of property and capitalism

marriage life is a shared reality created through the interaction of marital partners

35)

A significant difference between conflict and feminist perspectives on the family and functionalist perspectives on the family is that___________________.

(1pts)

conflict and feminist theory does not address the family and functionalism does

functionalists do not recognize the role that the family plays in regulating reproduction

functionalists are much more realistic than the others about the potential for problems in the family

conflict and feminist theorists view the functionalist perspective as unrealistic in its emphasis on support and harmony within the family

36)

__________ analyze family influence on an individual’s self-concept and identity. From this perspective, what people think, as well as what they say and do, is very important in understanding family dynamics.​

(1pts)

Conflict theorists

Functionalists

Symbolic interactionists

Postmodern theorists

37)

Sociologists note that women and men in the United States may have very different ideas about and perceptions of love. One of the differences is that men, more than women,______________.

(1pts)

express their feelings verbally

tend to express their love through nonverbal actions

fall in love very quickly

are very nurturing and emotionally supportive of loved ones

38)

True or False. Both religion and education are responsible for teaching knowledge, cultural values, and beliefs.

(1pts)

True False

39)

True or False. Standardized tests are an effective means of testing student intelligence and ability.​

(1pts)

True False

40)

True or False. The functions of religion (providing meaning and purpose, promoting social cohesion and a sense of belonging, and providing social control and support for the government) can only be fulfilled by beliefs and practices that are supernatural in nature.​

(1pts)

True False

41)

Both religion and education___________________________.​

(1pts)

impart values, beliefs, and knowledge considered to the social reproduction of society and the individual

are provided publically by state and federal governments

deal with issues of governance and social movements

are relatively new social institutions

42)

Early sociologist __________ saw the responsibility of education as teaching a commitment to a shared social morality. In this way, education is crucial for promoting solidarity and stability in society.​

(1pts)

Robert Merton

Robert Merton

Emile Durkheim

Karl Marx

43)

From kindergarten through college, schools teach students the student role as well as other important information about society. This is one of the manifest functions of education: __________.​

(1pts)

social placement

socialization

change and innovation

transmission of culture

44)

Over time, new educational programs are introduced to meet societal needs. Programs such as sex education, drug education, and multicultural studies have been implemented to teach students about pressing social issues. These examples illustrate the manifest function of education called __________.​

(1pts)

social placement

transmission of culture

socialization

change and innovation

45)

__________ is a process in which academic qualifications are necessary in order to attain class advantage and higher social status.​

(1pts)

Credentialism

Ability grouping

The hidden curriculum

Tracking

46)

The term __________ refers to an unsubstantiated belief or prediction resulting in behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.​

(1pts)

defeating perception

fallacy of reasoning

learning disability

self-fulfilling prophecy

47)

Ethnic and class differences are significant in dropout rates. For example, with a dropout rate of 13 percent, __________ have the highest dropout rate of any racial/ethnic group in U.S. schools.​

(1pts)

Native Americans

non-Hispanic Whites

Latinos/as (Hispanics)

African Americans

48)

Sociologists use the term __________ for a system of sacred or supernatural beliefs, symbols, and rituals that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a community.​

(1pts)

religion

spirituality

secularization

liberation theology

49)

Muslim periodic prayer while bowing toward Mecca and the Christian celebration of communion are examples of events that Geertz and others would term __________.​

(1pts)

dogma

rituals

secular ceremonies

magic

50)

__________ refers to a decline in the importance of religious ideas, practices, and institutions in everyday life.​

(1pts)

Religious reductionism

Secularization

Detheification

Ritualism

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