True or False. Racism tends to intensify during periods of economic uncertainty and high rates of immigration.
True or False. Although the United States had colonial rule over the Philippines from 1898 to 1946, Filipinos were not considered citizens of the United States.
__________ is the term for a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes.
The term ethnicity refers to __________.
a person’s cultural background or national origin
a group of people who were all born in the same location
people who share a racial identity
feelings of ethnocentrism
Sociologists use the term __________ for a group that is advantaged by greater power and access to resources in a society
Sociologists use the term __________ for a group whose members are disadvantaged by physical or cultural characteristics, are subjected to unequal treatment by the controlling group, and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.
__________ refers to the tendency to regard one’s own culture and group as the standard, and thus superior, whereas all other groups are seen as inferior.
The __________ states that people who are disappointed in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of assertiveness toward others.
authoritarian personality principle
social learning theory
social convergence hypothesis
Children are not “naturally” prejudiced. Prejudice and discrimination are reinforced when relatives and friends reward children with smiles and laughs for telling derogatory jokes or making negative comments about outgroup members. This is the basic framework of the __________.
social learning theory
unprejudiced discrimination theory
The term __________ refers to the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.
A bank consistently denies loans to people of color. This is an example of __________ discrimination.
The __________ states that when people from divergent groups are exposed to each other, favorable attitudes and behavior develop when certain factors are present.
social behavior thesis
Prior to the Civil Rights Act, Jim Crow laws in the U.S. South mandated the systematic physical and social separation of whites and African Americans in all areas of public life. This is an example of __________.
de jure segregation
de faccia segregation
de facto segregation
True or False. A transgender person is an individual whose gender identity does not match the person’s assigned identity.
True or False. Gender refers to the socially and socially constructed differences between males and females.
The term __________ refers to the process of treating people as if they were things, not human beings. Typically, this occurs when we judge people on the basis of their physical appearance rather than on the basis of their individual qualities or actions.
What is the term for extreme prejudice directed at gays?
__________ refers to the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process.
__________ is the term for the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
Sexism is interwoven with __________, which is a hierarchical system of social organization where cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men.
In most hunting and gathering societies,___________________________.
men dominate because they have the ability to provide all of the food necessary for survival
women control the food surplus in these societies
relationships between women and men tend to be cooperative and relatively egalitarian
women are subordinate economic partners with men
The assignment of chores to children by parents typically results in______________________.
girls being more often responsible for caring for younger brothers and sisters
chore assignments tending to be gender-neutral when made by mothers
maintenance chores being assigned to girls
domestic chores being assigned to boys
In discussing peers and gender socialization, the text points out that_____________________.
today peer groups of both sexes tend not to promote gender roles
female peer groups place more pressure on girls to do “feminine” things than male peer groups place on boys to do “masculine” things
peer groups actually have little influence on adolescent development
male peer groups place more pressure on boys to do “masculine” things than female peer groups place on girls to do “feminine” things
The text cites a comprehensive study of gender bias in schools; the study suggests that girls’ self-esteem is undermined in school through a number of experiences, including_____________________.
sexual harassment by male teachers
the stereotyping and invisibility of females in science and math texts
direct rejection by instructors
a relative surplus of attention from teachers
Occupational segregation contributes to the __________, which refers to the disparity between women’s and men’s earnings.
comparable worth distinction
sexual wage differentiation
True or False. Most U.S. family households are made up of a married couple with one or more children under the age of 18.
True or False. Research suggests that those people in sustained relationships such as marriage and cohabitation find sexual activity to be the most satisfying emotionally and physically.
True or False. Over the last fifty years in the United States, the number of households comprised of single men and single women living alone has been increasing.
What constitutes a “family” has been widely debated. For many years, the standard sociological definition of family was __________.
a social network of people into which a person is born, composed of relatives, parents, and children who live in the same household
a group of people who are related to one another by bonds of blood, marriage, or adoption and who live together, form an economic unit, and bear and raise children
a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
a group of people that consists of a husband and wife, children from previous marriages, and children (if any) from the new marriage
According to sociologist Judy Root Aulette, “families we choose” include blood ties and legal ties, but they also include __________, persons who are not actually related by blood but who are accepted as family members.
With the advent of industrialization and urbanization, maintaining the __________ family pattern becomes more difficult. Increasingly, young people move from rural to urban areas in search of employment in the industrializing sector of the economy. At that time, the __________ family typically becomes the predominant family pattern in the society.
In preindustrial societies, kinship is usually traced through one parent (unilineally). The most common pattern of unilineal descent is __________, which is a system of tracing descent through the father’s side of the family.
The cultural practice of marrying within one’s own group is called __________.
Emile Durkheim saw the family as a microcosm of society. He argued that, much like in society generally,____________________________.
females are socialized to be passive and males are socialized to be aggressive
a division of labor contributes to greater efficiency in marriages and families
men’s domination over women existed long before private ownership of property and capitalism
marriage life is a shared reality created through the interaction of marital partners
A significant difference between conflict and feminist perspectives on the family and functionalist perspectives on the family is that___________________.
conflict and feminist theory does not address the family and functionalism does
functionalists do not recognize the role that the family plays in regulating reproduction
functionalists are much more realistic than the others about the potential for problems in the family
conflict and feminist theorists view the functionalist perspective as unrealistic in its emphasis on support and harmony within the family
__________ analyze family influence on an individual’s self-concept and identity. From this perspective, what people think, as well as what they say and do, is very important in understanding family dynamics.
Sociologists note that women and men in the United States may have very different ideas about and perceptions of love. One of the differences is that men, more than women,______________.
express their feelings verbally
tend to express their love through nonverbal actions
fall in love very quickly
are very nurturing and emotionally supportive of loved ones
True or False. Both religion and education are responsible for teaching knowledge, cultural values, and beliefs.
True or False. Standardized tests are an effective means of testing student intelligence and ability.
True or False. The functions of religion (providing meaning and purpose, promoting social cohesion and a sense of belonging, and providing social control and support for the government) can only be fulfilled by beliefs and practices that are supernatural in nature.
Both religion and education___________________________.
impart values, beliefs, and knowledge considered to the social reproduction of society and the individual
are provided publically by state and federal governments
deal with issues of governance and social movements
are relatively new social institutions
Early sociologist __________ saw the responsibility of education as teaching a commitment to a shared social morality. In this way, education is crucial for promoting solidarity and stability in society.
From kindergarten through college, schools teach students the student role as well as other important information about society. This is one of the manifest functions of education: __________.
change and innovation
transmission of culture
Over time, new educational programs are introduced to meet societal needs. Programs such as sex education, drug education, and multicultural studies have been implemented to teach students about pressing social issues. These examples illustrate the manifest function of education called __________.
transmission of culture
change and innovation
__________ is a process in which academic qualifications are necessary in order to attain class advantage and higher social status.
The hidden curriculum
The term __________ refers to an unsubstantiated belief or prediction resulting in behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.
fallacy of reasoning
Ethnic and class differences are significant in dropout rates. For example, with a dropout rate of 13 percent, __________ have the highest dropout rate of any racial/ethnic group in U.S. schools.
Sociologists use the term __________ for a system of sacred or supernatural beliefs, symbols, and rituals that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a community.
Muslim periodic prayer while bowing toward Mecca and the Christian celebration of communion are examples of events that Geertz and others would term __________.
__________ refers to a decline in the importance of religious ideas, practices, and institutions in everyday life.