Social Science

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Final Exam

Multiple Choice Identifv the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

INSTRUCTIONS: Identify the conclusion of the following arguments

l. Cow’s milk is far from being the nutritious food that the American Dairy Association would have us believe. To increase milk production, the cows are fed bovine growth hormone. This hormone increases the production of insulinlike growth factor, which can cause cancer. Also, to keep them healthy, the cows are fed antibiotics, which end up in the milk. a. Argument; conclusion: Cow’s milk is far from being… have us believe. b. Argument; conclusion: To keep them healthy … end up in the milk. c. Nonargument. d. Argument; conclusion: This hormone … which can cause cancer. e. Argument; conclusion: To increase milk production … bovine growth hormone.

2. Economics is the study of choice under conditions of scarcity. As individuals, and as a society, we have unlimited desires for goods and services. Unfortunately, the resources needed to produce those goods and services are scarce. Therefore, we must choose which desires to satisfy and how to satisfy them. Economics provides the tools that explain those choices.

Robert E. Hall and Marc Lieberman, Economics: Principles and Applications a. Argument; conclusion: Economics provides the tools … explain those choices. b. Argument; conclusion: We must choose which desires … to satisfy them. c. Argument;conclusion: Economics is the study… conditions of scarcity. d. Argument; conclusion: Unfortunately, the resources … are scarce. e. Nonargument.

3. Marketing to consumers via the lntemet has many advantages for marketers. It allows products and services to be offered 24 hours a day,7 days a week. It allows products to be offered globally in an efficient manner. And it is cost efficient, saving the need for stores, paper catalogues, and sales people.

J. Paul Peter and Jerry C. Olson, Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strateg,t a. Argument; conclusion: It allows products and services … 7 days a week. b. Argument; conclusion: It allows products to be offered … an efficient manner. c. Argument; conclusion: It is cost efficient … and sales people. d. Nonargument. e. Argument; conclusion: Marketing to consumers … for marketers.

4. The ozone layer filters out harmful ultraviolet rays from sunlight before they can reach the surface of our planet and cause damage to humans and other life forms. Any substantial reduction in the amount of this ozone would threaten life as we know it. Consequently, the appearance of a large “hole” in the ozone layer over Antarctica represents a major environmental crisis.

Colin Baird and Michael Cann, Environmental Chemistry, 3’d edition . a. Argument; conclusion: Any substantial reduction … life as we know it.

b. Argument; conclusion: The appearance of a large … environmental crisis. c. Argument; conclusion: The ozone layer … surface of our planet. d. Argument; conclusion: The ozone layer … and other life forms. e. Nonarsument.

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The Social Security system is a pay-as-you-go arrangement where contributions by today’s workers are paid

out to yesterday’s retirees. If part of today’s contributions go into private retirement accounts, they cannot be

paid out. To make up the shortage, the government will have to borrow massive amounts of money. Hence,

Social Security privatization will cause a huge increase in the federal deficit.

a. Nonargument. b. Argument; conclusion: If part of today’s contributions … cannot be paid out.

c. Argument; conclusion: Social security privatization … federal deficit.

d. Argument; conclusion: The Social Security System… to yesterday’s retirees’

e. Argument; conclusion: To make up the shortage … massive amounts of money.

Contrary to the assurances of the fast food industry, most fast foods are loaded with fat grams. For example,

KFC’s Chunky Chicken Pot Pie has 42 fat grams, a Double Whopper with Cheese has 65, and an order of

Mucho Grande Nachos has an incredible 82 fat grams.

a. Argument; conclusion: An order of Mucho Grande Nachos …82 fat grams.

b. Nonargument. c. Argument; conclusion: Most fast foods are loaded with fat grams’

d. Argument; conclusion: KFC’s Chunky Chicken Pot Pie has 42 fat grams.

e. Argument; conclusion: A Double Whopper with Cheese has 65.

Education in the United States is a system in crisis. Compared to their Asian and European counterparts,

American students are poor academic performers, especially in sciences and in mathematics. Despite having

received an education, millions of adults are functionally and culturally illiterate. Educational funding has

been cut dramatically, and many school facilities are in dangerous states of disrepair. Michael P. Soroka and George J. Bryjak, Social Problems: A World at Risk

a. Argument; conclusion: Education in the United States is a system in crisis.

b. Argument; conclusion: Despite having received … culturally illiterate.

c. Argument; conclusion: Compared to their Asian … sciences and in mathematics.

d. Argument; conclusion: Educational funding … dangerous states of disrepair.

e. Nonargument.

Modern biology is as important as it is inspiring. Genetics and cell biology are revolutionizingmedicine and

agriculture. lvlolecular biology is providing new tools for anthropology, helping us trace the origin and

dispersal of early humans. Ecology is helping us evaluate environmental issues, such as the causes and

.orrr”qu”rr”es of global warming. And neuroscience and evolutionary biology are reshaping psychology and

sociology. Neil A. Campbell and Jane B. Reece, Biologt,6tr’edition

a. Argument; conclusion: Genetics and cell biology … agriculture.

b. Argument; conclusion: Molecular biology … dispersal of early humans.

c. Nonargument. d. Argument; conclusion: Neuroscience and evolutionary biology … sociology.

e. Argument; conclusion: Modern biology is as important as it is inspiring.

g. Laws banning junk e-mail are largely ineffective. Spammers can easily avoid such laws by moving overseas,

where local rules allow them free rein. Also, it is often impossible to detect the source ofjunk e-mail. Much

of it is sent from zombie transmitters–personal computers that have been hijacked by viruses’ Newspaper Clipping

a. Argument; conclusion: Spammers can easily avoid … allow them free rein.

b. Argument; conclusion: Much of it is sent … hijacked by viruses.

c. Argument; conclusion: Laws banning junk e-mail are largely ineffective.

d. Argument; conclusion: Also, it is often impossible … junk e-mail.

e. Nonargument.

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Tattooing and body piercing pose serious health risks to those receiving them. The primary concern is infection with blood-bom pathogens like H.I.V. and hepatitis. Bacteria that live on ih” skin are easily spread by unsterilized instruments or ungloved hands. And tongue and genital piercing can also provide channels fo. bacterial and viruses to enter the bloodstream after the piercing procedure.

Lorraine Kreahling, “The Perils of Needles to the Bodv” a. Argument; conclusion: Tattooing and body piercing … to those recbiving them. b. Argument; conclusion: And tongue and genital piercing … piercing pro””d1r.”. c. Argument; conclusion: The primary concern… like H.LV. and hepatitis. d. Argument; conclusion: Bacteria that live on the skin … ungloved hands. e. Nonargument.

INSTRUCTIONS: The following problems relate to identifying and evaluating inductive and deductive arguments. Select the best answer for each.

Harry just bought a brand new car. Harry must have won the lottery. a. Deductive, invalid. b. Inductive, invalid. c. Deductive. valic. d. Inductive, strong. e. Inductive, weak.

The inscription beneath the image on a one-dollar bill reads “Washington.” Therefore, the image must be that of George Washington. a. Deductive, invalid. b. Deductive, valid. c. Deductive, sound. d. Inductive, strong. e. Inductive. weak.

The annual snowfall in Buffalo, New York, has been over 40 inches every year for the past 20 years. Therefore, probably the snowfall in Buffalo will be over 40 inches next vear, a. Inductive, strong. b. Deductive, sound. c. Deductive. invalid. d. Deductive, valid. e. Inductive, weak.

The 2004 olympic games were held in either Athens or Salt Lake City. But they were not held in Athens. Therefore, they were held in Salt Lake City. a. Inductive, valid. b. Deductive. invalid. c. Deductive, valid. d. Inductive, strong. e. Deductive, cogent.

15. Yuri Androvich is a blue-eyed Russian, and his paintings sell for over g10,000. peter Roganov is also a blue-eyed Russian, and he just finished art school. Thus, his paintings should sell for ou”i $10,000, too. a. Inductive, strong. b. Deductive, valid. c. Inductive, cogent. d. Deductive, invalid. e. Inductive, weak.

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Time magazine carried an article on the Abu Ghraib prison scandal. Newsweek is similar in its coverage to Time.Thus, Newsweek must have carried an article on that scandal. a. Deductive, sound. b. Inductive, strong. c. Deductive. invalid. d. Deductive, valid. e. Inductive, weak.

If H.I.V. becomes drug resistant, then countless victims will perish. If H.I.V. becomes drug resistant, then a major health crisis will erupt. Therefore, if a major health crisis erupts, then countless victims will perish. a. Deductive. invalid. b. Deductive, sound. c. Inductive, strong. d. Inductive. weak. e. Deductive, valid.

That bearded man in the park is carrying a sign that reads “Repent! The End is Near.” We conclude that the world will come to an end in the near future. a. Deductive, valid. b. Deductive, invalid. c. Inductive, weak. d. Inductive, cogent. e. Inductive, strong.

Maria is a hypochondriac. Therefore, she always worries about her health. a. Inductive, strong. b. Deductive, valid. c. Inductive, weak. d. Deductive, unsound. e. Deductive. invalid.

If corporations continue to pollute, then the environment will be damaged beyond repair. The environment will be damaged beyond repair. Therefore, corporations will continue to pollute. a. Deductive, invalid. b. Deductive, sound. c. lnductive, strong. d. Deductive, valid. e. Inductive, weak.

Valerie Nelson’s last three novels sold well over a million copies each. She’s now finished a new novel, and it has gotten better reviews than the earlier ones. Hence, her new novel should sell over a million copies, too. a. Inductive, strong. b. Inductive, weak. c. Deductive. invalid. d. lnductive, cogent. e. Deductive, valid.

More tlran 99%o of all airplane flights land safely. Therefore, probably the next flight to depart from JFK Intemational Airport will land safely. a. Deductive, valid. b. Inductive, strong. c. Inductive, weak. d. Deductive, invalid. e. Inductive,uncogent.

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If prisoners are discharged without any skills, then they will retum to a life of crime. If prisoners are unable

to get jobs, then they wlll retum to a life of crime. Thus, if prisoners are discharged without any skills, then

they will be unable to get jobs.

a. Deductive, invalid. b. Deductive, valid. c. Inductive, weak. d. Inductive, cogent. e. lnductive, strong.

According to a widely respected poll, 60% of the voters in Pennsylvania support Amelia Kerrigan for

Govemor. Therefore, Kerrigan will probably win, since the election is only two days away.

a. Deductive, valid. b. Inductive, weak. c. Inductive, cogent. d. Inductive, strong. e. Deductive, invalid.

On the inside surface of this gold ring some small print reads “14k.” Therefore, the ring must be made of 14

caret gold. a. Deductive, valid. b. Deductive. invalid. c. Inductive. weak. d. Inductive, strong. e. Inductive, cogent.

Either more people are killed in the U.S. every year by lightning or by tomadoes. But it is not the case that

more people are killed every year by tomadoes. Therefore, more people are killed every year by lightning’

a. Deductive,uncogent. b. Inductive. weak. c. Deductive. invalid. d. Inductive, strong. e. Deductive, valid.

Mitzi the cat is looking at its empty bowl and meowing. Mitzi must be hungry.

a. Inductive, strong. b. Deductive, invalid. c. Deductive, valid. d. Inductive, weak. e. Inductive, cogent.

Tom’s car has a flat tire. Someone must have slashed it with a knife.

a. Deductive. valid. b. Deductive. unsound. c. Inductive, strong. d. Deductive, invalid. e. Inductive, weak.

Every dancer on the floor has a partner. Hence, there are an even number ofdancers on the floor.

a. Deductive, invalid. b. Inductive. weak. c. Deductive, valid. d. Deductive, sound. e. Inductive, strong.

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The print at the bottom of this full box of Cheerios says NET WT

l5 ounces. a. Inductive, weak. b. Inductive,uncogent. c. Deductive, valid. d. Inductive, strong. e. Deductive, invalid.

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15 OZ. Therefore, the contents must weigh

INSTRUCTIONS: Sdlect the answer that best characterizes the following arguments.

Dr. Niels Langer, the universally recognized climatologist, says that global warming is an extremely

important problem that must be addressed immediately. Therefore, we should take him at his word and get to

work on solving this problem right now. a. No fallacy. b. Appeal to the people. c. Appeal to unqualified authority. d. Begging the question. e. Appeal to force.

Vioxx, Celebrex, and Bextra are painkillers, and all of them are risky for heart patients. It must be the case

that all painkillers are risky for heart patients. a. No fallacy. b. False cause. c. Hastygeneralization. d. Composition. e. Accident.

Radio host Rush Limbaugh argues that America’s foreign policy is a great success. But who is this screwball

Limbaugh? He’s nothing but a fascist, sexist, homophobic, drug-addicted moron, who will say anything to stir

up the ultra right. Every sane person shuts him off. a. Begging the question. b. Argument against the person, abusive. c. False cause d. Hastygeneralization. e. No fallacy.

Dorothy has blue eyes and blond hair. Therefore, probably her identical twin sister Theodora has blue eyes

and blond hair. a. Argument against the person, circumstantial. b. Weak analogy. c. Amphiboly. d. False cause. e. No fallacy.

It’s never a good idea to allow your teenage kids to have a sip of charnpagne on New Year’s Eve. Next you

know they’ll be drinking beer during TV football games. Then it’ll be wine every night at dinner. Then bloody

Mary’s every morning. Soon they’ll be raging alcoholics, and the costs for rehab will be enormous.

a. Complex question. b. No fallacy. c. Slippery slope. d. False cause. e. Missing the point.

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Congressman Baxter, I know you will want to support our application to clear-cut the old growth timber in the Great Northern forest. After all, surely you don’t want the media to find out about that affair you’ve been having with a certain Capitol Hill intern. a. Division. b. Appeal to the people. c. No fallacy. d. Appeal to pity. e. Appeal to foree.

There is a lot of talk these days about the need for greater fuel economy in SUVs. But today’s SlfV’s are really beautiful. The Lexus LS 450 has clean lines, supple leather, and qolished hardwood. The Lincoln Navigator features beautiful paint and the feel of strength and security. And the Mercury Mariner has wonderful styling and a great sound system. Who could ask for anything more? a. Begging the question. b. Red herring. c. Straw man. d. Missing the point. e. No fallacy.

Either you buy me a new Rolls Royce or I’ll have to walk to work in the snow. And I’m sure you don’t want me to do that. a. Straw man. b. No fallacy. c. False dichotomy. d. Appeal to force. e. Missing the point.

Nobody has ever seen Mr. Albie walk without crutches. We conclude that Mr. Albie needs crutches to walk. a. Appeal to pity. b. False cause. c. Appeal to ignorance. d. Begging the question. e. No fallacy.

During the five years that Clarence has worn a Rolex watch, three of his married friends have gotten a divorce. Thus, to prevent any more divorces, it is essential that he stop wearing that watch. a. False cause. b. No fallacy. c. Suppressedevidence. d. Weak analogy. e. Accident.

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