Social Science


The resources in this learning block are examples of artifacts that have helped create new attitudes toward women and the LGBT community while at the same time being influenced by society’s changing views. Use these examples and the information presented in the overview to complete the first table on this week’s worksheet:

In the first column, provide an example of a contemporary artifact that either helps create change in the way women or LGBT people are perceived, or has been influenced by society’s changing views of women and LGBT members. In the second column, state in two to three sentences the reason you selected this artifact.

An example of an artifact that may have changed the perception of women is the novel The Hunger Games and its film adaptation, featuring the strong lead female character Katniss. An example of an artifact that may help shape society’s views of LGBT individuals is the TV show Modern Family, featuring Mitch and Cam.



In one to two sentences, answer the following question: Based on the description in the article Making Asian American Women Visible: The Joy Luck Club, what influence might Tan’s novel, and similar artifacts, have on broader American culture? Can you think of another artifact that has had a similar impact?

  • I N T E R V I E W I N G P r i n c i p l e s a n d P r a c t i c e s

    F I F T E E N T H E D I T I O N

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    I N T E R V I E W I N G P r i n c i p l e s a n d P r a c t i c e s

    F I F T E E N T H E D I T I O N

    Charles J. Stewart Purdue University

    William B. Cash, Jr.

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    Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2014, 2011, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

    Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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    ISBN 978-1-259-87053-8 MHID 1-259-87053-7

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    All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Stewart, Charles J., author. | Cash, William B., author. Interviewing : principles and practices / Charles J. Stewart, Purdue University, William B. Cash, Jr. Fifteenth Edition. | Dubuque : McGraw-Hill Education, [2017] | Revised edition of the authors’ Interviewing, [2014] LCCN 2016042444 | ISBN 9781259870538 (alk. paper) LCSH: Interviewing—Textbooks. | Employment interviewing—Textbooks. | Counseling—Textbooks. LCC BF637.I5 S75 2017 | DDC 158.3/9—dc23 LC record available at

    The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

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    To the memory of William “Bill” Cash, Jr., student, co-author, and friend

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    A B O U T T H E A U T H O R S

    Charles J. Stewart Charles J. “Charlie” Stewart is the former Margaret Church Distinguished Professor of Communication at Purdue University where he taught from 1961 to 2009. He taught undergraduate courses in interviewing and persuasion and graduate courses in such areas as persuasion and social protest, apologetic rhetoric, and extremist rhetoric on the Inter- net. He received the Charles B. Murphy Award for Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching from Purdue University and the Donald H. Ecroyd Award for Outstanding Teaching in Higher Education from the National Communication Association. He was a Founding Fellow of the Purdue University Teaching Academy. He has written articles, chapters, and books on interviewing, persuasion, and social movements.

    Charlie Stewart has been a consultant with organizations such as the Internal Rev- enue Service, the American Electric Power Company, Libby Foods, the Indiana Univer- sity School of Dentistry, and the United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters. He is currently a Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) for children.

    William B. Cash, Jr. The late William “Bill” Cash began his work life in his father’s shoe and clothing store in northern Ohio. While still in high school, he began to work in broadcasting and adver- tising, and this led to bachelor’s and master’s degrees in broadcasting and speech com- munication at Kent State University. After completing his academic work at Kent State, he joined the speech communication faculty at Eastern Illinois University and began to consult with dozens of companies such as Blaw-Knox, IBM, and Hewitt Associates. Bill took a leave from Eastern Illinois and pursued a PhD in organizational communication under W. Charles Redding. He returned to the faculty at Eastern Illinois and created and taught a course in interviewing.

    Bill Cash left college teaching and held positions with Ralston Purina, Detroit Edison, Baxter, and Curtis Mathis, often at the vice president level. After several years in industry, he returned to teaching and took a faculty position at National-Louis University in Chicago. He became the first chair of the College of Management and Business and developed courses in human resources, management, and marketing.

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    B R I E F C O N T E N T S

    Preface xvii

    1 An Introduction to Interviewing 1

    2 An Interpersonal Communication Process 9

    3 Questions and Their Uses 33

    4 Structuring the Interview 49

    5 The Informational Interview 71

    6 The Survey Interview 99

    7 The Recruiting Interview 129

    8 The Employment Interview 155

    9 The Performance Interview 193

    10 The Persuasive Interview 215

    11 The Counseling Interview 253

    12 The Health Care Interview 275

    Glossary 305

    Author Index 319

    Subject Index 323

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    C O N T E N T S

    Preface xvii

    1An Introduction to Interviewing 1 The Essential Characteristics of Interviews 1

    Two Parties 1 Purpose and Structure 1 Interactional 2 Questions 2 Exercise #1—What Is and Is Not an Interview? 3

    Traditional Forms of Interviewing 3 Information-Giving Interviews 3 Information-Gathering Interviews 3 Focus Group Interviews 4 Selection Interviews 4 Performance Review 4 Counseling 4 Persuasion 4 Technology and Interviewing 4 The Telephone Interview 5 Two-Way Video Technology 5 E-Mail 6 Webinars 6

    Summary 7 Key TermS and ConCepTS 7 STudenT aCTiviTieS 8 noTeS 8 reSourCeS 8

    2An Interpersonal Communication Process 9 Two Parties in the Interview 9

    Relational Dimensions 10

    Global Relationships 12 Gender in Relationships 12

    Interchanging Roles during Interviews 13 Directive Approach 13 Nondirective Approach 14

    Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee 14 Perceptions of Self 14 Perceptions of the Other Party 16

    Communication Interactions 16 Levels of Interactions 17 Self-Disclosure 17 Verbal Interactions 18 Nonverbal Interactions 20 Verbal and Nonverbal Intertwined 20 Gender and Nonverbal Interactions 21 Culture and Nonverbal Interactions 21 Nonverbal Interactions in the Global Village 21

    Feedback 22 Listening for Comprehension 23 Listening for Empathy 23 Listening for Evaluation 23 Listening for Resolution 24

    The Interview Situation 24 Initiating the Interview 24 Perceptions 24 Timing 25 Location and Setting 26 Territoriality 26 Seating 27

    Outside Forces 28

    Summary 29

    Key TermS and ConCepTS 30

    STudenT aCTiviTieS 30

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    xii Contents

    noTeS 31

    reSourCeS 32

    3Questions and Their Uses 33 Open and Closed Questions 33

    Open Questions 33 Closed Questions 34

    Primary and Probing Questions 37 Types of Probing Questions 37 Skillful Interviewing with Probing Questions 40 Exercise #1—Supply the Probing Question 40

    Neutral and Leading Questions 41 Exercise #2—Identification of Questions 42

    Common Question Pitfalls 43 The Unintentional Bipolar Question 43 The Yes (No) Question 44 The Tell Me Everything Question 44 The Open-to-Closed Question 44 The Double-Barreled Question 44 The Unintentional Leading Question 45 The Guessing Question 45 The Curious Question 45 The Too High or Too Low Question 45 The Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Question 45 Exercise #3—What Are the Pitfalls in These Questions? 46

    Summary 47

    Key TermS and ConCepTS 47

    STudenT aCTiviTieS 47

    noTeS 48

    reSourCeS 48

    4Structuring the Interview 49 The Body of the Interview 49

    Interview Guide 49

    Interview Schedules 51 Exercise #1—Interview Schedules 52 Question Sequences 53

    Opening the Interview 56 The Two-Step Process 57 Nonverbal Communication in Openings 60 Exercise #2—Interview Openings 62

    Closing the Interview 63 Guidelines for Closing Interviews 63 Closing Techniques 64 Exercise #3—Interview Closings 66

    Summary 68

    Key TermS and ConCepTS 68

    STudenT aCTiviTieS 69

    noTeS 69

    reSourCeS 70

    5The Informational Interview 71 Planning the Interview 71

    Formulate Your Purpose 71 Research the Topic 72 Choose the Interviewee 73 Examine Your Relationship with the Interviewee 74 Study the Situation and Location 75 Structure Your Interview 76 The Interview Opening 77

    Conducting the Interview 77 Motivating Interviewees 77 Asking Questions 78 Note Taking and Recording 80 Managing Unique Situations 82 Managing Difficult Interviewees 85

    Closing the Interview 89

    Preparing the Report or Story 89

    The Interviewee in the Interview 90

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    Do Your Homework 90 Understand the Relationship 90 Know the Situation 91 Anticipate Questions 91 Listen to Questions 91 Answer Strategically 92

    Summary 93

    Key TermS and ConCepTS 94

    probing role-playing CaSeS 94

    STudenT aCTiviTieS 95

    noTeS 96

    reSourCeS 97

    6The Survey Interview 99 Purpose and Research 99

    Structuring the Interview 100 Interview Guide and Schedule 100 The Opening 100 The Closing 102

    Survey Questions 102 Phrasing Questions 103 Sample Question Development 104 Probing Questions 105 Question Strategies 105 Question Scales 108 Question Sequences 112

    Selecting Interviewees 112 Defining the Population 112 Sampling Principles 112 Sampling Techniques 113

    Selecting and Training Interviewers 115 Number Needed 115 Qualifications 115 Personal Characteristics 116 Training Interviewers 116

    Conducting Survey Interviews 117

    Pretesting the Interview 117 Interviewing Face-to-Face 118 Interviewing by Telephone 118 Interviewing through the Internet 120

    Coding, Tabulation, and Analysis 121 Coding and Tabulation 121 Analysis 121

    The Respondent in Survey Interviews 122 The Opening 122 The Question Phase 123

    Summary 123

    Key TermS and ConCepTS 124

    Survey role-playing CaSeS 124

    STudenT aCTiviTieS 125

    noTeS 126

    reSourCeS 127

    7The Recruiting Interview 129 Where to Find Talented Applicants 129

    Preparing the Recruiting Effort 131 Reviewing EEO Laws 131 Exercise #1—Testing Your Knowledge of EEO Laws 133 Developing an Applicant Profile 134 Assessing Today’s Applicants 135

    Obtaining and Reviewing Information on Applicants 136

    Application Forms 136 Cover Letters 136 Resumes 136 Letters of Recommendation and References 137 Standardized Tests 138 Social Media 139

    Conducting the Interview 140 The Atmosphere and Setting 140 The Interview Parties 140

    Contents xiii

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