a. Libertarian and paretian economics suggest too few limits on what people can agree to in loan contracts, limits that promote freedom and equality.
b. Libertarian and paretian economics suggest too many limits on what people can agree to in contracts for loans creating inequality between lender and borrower.
c. Libertarian and paretian economics suggest exactly the right limits on what people can agree to in loan contracts, but get the moral reasons wrong.
d. Libertarian and paretian economics suggest too many limits on what people can agree to in contracts for loans limiting their freedom.
2) According to Anderson, which of the following best characterizes the ethical shortcoming of economic theory?
a. Economic theory does not see that the change in lending practices show greater respect for the equality and dignity of individuals under capitalism than under its predecessors.
b. Economic theory does not explain how government interference in free markets reduces the freedom and well-being of individuals.
c. Economic theory does not see how debt is a means of controlling and exploiting the poor and middle class in contemporary capitalist societies.
d. Economic theory does not see the immoral exploitation of individuals under capitalist employment relationships.
3) Which of the following is a consequence of 1-2-3 quantitative analyses of happiness has according to McCloskey.
a. It provides a sound basis for political policy because is grounded in objective science.
b. It provides a sound basis for political policy because it is impartial and treats everyone equally.
c. It undermines human dignity because the happiness of individuals cannot be compared to one another by these measures.
d. It undermines human dignity because happiness does not matter as much a moral character.
4) According to Locke, which of the following is not a restriction a on property rights in the state of nature?
a. We can only take property from nature through labor, i.e. we cannot simply claim ownership without labor
b. That we cannot choose to exchange property because there is no currency in the state of nature
c. We cannot own more than we can use without it spoiling, this prevents hoarding or destruction of common resources
d. We must leave enough and as good for others, because common stocks are owned by all
5) According to Locke, legitimate laws do not conflict with our freedom, because of which of the following reasons?
a. They do not coerce individuals
b. They do not involve taxation or taking people’s property
c. The laws promote the common good
d. Government exists through the consent of the governed
6) According to Marx, alienation is which of the following?
a. The separation of things that belong together
b. The problem of Martians or other beings from outer space who enslave us
c. The sense of ‘otherness’ or ‘estrangement’ between workers and owners
d. A feeling of separation or not fitting in
7) Which of the following is not an aspect of essence alienation according to Marx
a. That numerical analysis ignores the fundamentally human aspects of labor
b. That workers are alienated from the other aspects of who they are as persons
c. That labor eliminates the essentially rational and creative aspects of human beings
d. That necessary goods, which are essential for life (e.g. food and shelter), are not guaranteed by work
8) Product alienation does not involve which of the following?
a.The separation of knowledge between understanding products as they appear in stores and the conditions under which they are produced
b.The separation between workers and the economic systems of production that they do not understand
c.The ever-increasing industrial processing which separates products from their natures
d.The separation of products from the individuals who make them to those who own the factory
9) What is Mackey’s view about the social responsibility of businesses?
a. If an entrepreneur chooses to do so, he or she can adopt big social purposes other than profit
b. Entrepreneurs can only pursue social purposes when doing so increases profits
c. Entrepreneurs should only pursue profits, and never have social responsibilities
d. If an entrepreneur pursues social purposes, he or she is essentially stealing from the share-holders or owners of the company
10) Which of the following is not a reason why Friedman argues that businesses do not have a social responsibility?
a. Social responsibility encourages the view that profit is evil
b. Social responsibility for businesses is an inefficient means of pursuing social goods
c. Social responsibility gives power over public goods to unaccountable bureaucrats
d. Social responsibility runs contrary to our natural self-interest
11) What does Friedman identify as the sole responsibility of businesses?
a. Treating its workers well
b. Contributing to the common good
c. Returning a profit to the owners
d. Providing customers with the best possible value
12) What does Sandel mean by saying that a market society faces a problem of unjust coercion?
a. Market societies force people to sell everything whether or not they consent to put them for sale, so that they can have more money
b. Market societies force people to buy products they do not wish to maintain a good public image
c. Many goods that are bought and sold in a market economy are transformed and degraded by being put for sale
d. Having more categories of goods in the market makes money matter more, so the costs of not having money rise to force people by necessity of circumstances
13) According to Sandel, the corruption particular to market societies is fundamentally which of the following?
a. The way that products become lower quality, spiraling downward because of price competition and planned obsolescence
b. The way that those with wealth are able to force the poor to serve them, conflicting with democratic ideals of freedom
c. The way that humans beings in market societies become less morally good, becoming greedy and obsessed with money or social status
d. The way that some goods change when they are bought or sold, undermining what makes them valuable
14) Sandel’s arguments about corruption and coercion are directed against which of the following?
a. Liberals, primarily libertarians, who believe freedom consists in voluntary exchanges typical of markets
b. Republicans, who believe that freedom is possible only when others cannot arbitrarily interfere with out lives typical of decisions made in markets
c. Democrats, who believe that the rules governing markets should be determined by the will of the majority
d. Conservatives, who believe that traditional values should not be changed by the commercialism of the market 15) Which of the following best characterizes how Rawls views the ideal conditions for determining principles of justice?
a. The deliberation of philosophers who have studied differing conceptions of justice, and who can best determine what is fair for all
b. The deliberation of social scientists who have studied different societies and can determine which is fairest by looking at average levels of happiness
c. The actual deliberation of individuals who understand their place in society and could determine what would be most fair for them
d. The hypothetical deliberation of individuals about what principles would be fair, given that those individuals are ignorant of their place in society (e.g. rich/poor, religious, etc)
16) What is the difference principle according to Rawls?
a. The difference of talents and abilities is morally significant so we should have equal opportunity but not equal outcomes
b. The difference of moral and religious belief between individuals should be accepted, so each individual requires substantial freedom
c. Social and economic inequality emerges from the exploitation of others and should not be tolerated
d. Social and economic inequality should be to the greatest benefit of the least well off
17) What is implicit bias?
a. Implicit bias is the bias that is implied, but not explicitly stated in discrimination.
b. Implicit bias is the unconscious positive and negative associations about members of different groups.
c. Implicit bias refers to bias that comes from talking about explicit bias.
d. Implicit bias refers to those situations where bias exists, but is hard to prove.
18) According to Steele, what is stereotype threat?
a. Stereotype threat occurs when members of a negatively stereotyped group are at risk of believing the stereotype and consequently performing worse.
b. Stereotype threat occurs when negative stereotypes lead others to threaten or exploit the stereotyped group.
c. Stereotype threat occurs when anxiety about confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group leads to worse performance.
d. Stereotype threat occurs when a groups (e.g. black men) are stereotyped as being dangerous or threatening.
19) Which of the following best characterizes Charles Mills argument against ideal theory?
a. Ideal theory present good and useful ideals that have been misunderstood and misapplied, so we must come up with new principles.
b. Ideal theory actually serves to reinforce oppressive relationships by justifying injustice.
c. Ideal theory presents attractive and valuable ideals, but these ideals are utopian and useless in our society.
d. Ideal theory falsely suggest that there is universal and objective moral truth when there is not, thus oppressing those who disagree with ideals.
20) How does Mills characterize non-ideal theory?
a. Non-ideal theory is based in universal and objective, but not abstract, moral principles applied in response to the injustices created by existing social practices.
b. Non-ideal theory is not what we would do in a morally perfect world, but it based on different principles for what we should do in this one.
c. Non-ideal theory is based on the idea that sometimes we should do what is morally wrong for the sake of a greater moral good like ending oppression.
d. Non-ideal theory is the application of abstract moral principles (e.g. respect humanity) to non-ideal circumstances.