History 104


Palestinian Declaration of Independence

1) After a half century of bitter warfare between Palestinians and Israelis can the Palestinian declaration of independence   be reconciled with the state of Israel’s concern about national security ? can the two people ever find way to live in peace?

The main problem with a Palestinian declaration of independence is the fact that the Palestinians still suffering from suffered of oppressed, constrained. Bother of Jewish and Muslim still keep feeling of feud for each other, they teach their children history and religion how each one became enemy for each other. Palestinian people feel as some one who took their home and land and started to control them as people came from another country. This issue still one of complex issues challenge  the destiny of  Palestinian and Jewish people.   If the Palestinians unilaterally declare independence then the danger to them is that Israel could recognize it without recognizing their borders and every Palestinian attack could be rightly considered an act of war. This is why both Gaza and the PA claim there is an occupation since claiming that and having that claim supported by the world restrains Israel from acting like they are in a state of war even if Israelis think they are in a state of war.

2) In declaration of independence, the Palestinian national council “ calls upon the united nations to bear special responsibility for the Palestinian Arab people and it’s homeland “ do you believe that the UN should “ bear a special responsibility “ for ensuring the security of a Palestinian state? How should the UN exercise this responsibility ?

Yes I do, I believe that US plays important role toward  this issue. United Nations can bear special responsibility for the Palestinian Arab people and its homeland. U.S plays important roles to  assist it in the attainment of its objectives, to provide it with security, to alleviate the tragedy of its people, and to help to terminate Israel’s occupation of the Palestinian territories.

 Declaration of Israel’s Independence

1) Can the historic and religious ties of the Jewish people to Israel accommodate the fact that for nearly two thousand years Israel was also the dwelling place of Arabs and other non-Jewish population?

In fact, Jews today try justify their occupation of Palestine on the basis of religious and historical allegations and seek to persuade the world by these allegations.  They claim that the god –Allaah- promised them that this is your land and point to their historical connection with it by virtue of their rule over it for a period of time, their presence in the area, their psychological and spiritual attachment to it, and its sacredness to them. We believe that the Jews have their religious freedom, and no one has the right to force them to change their beliefs; however, they have no right to oblige others to accept their belief. Besides, they are not entitled to displace a people from their homes or seize their land, property and sacred sites on the pretext of their religious claims. The history and religious play important role for giving and defined  the identity of nations around the world. But that not enough to prove  people right or give them a green sight for occupation like what happens  right now in Plantain as country .

2) how dose Israel proclamation of the independence suggest the influence of European and American history in this area ?

On November 29, 1947, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a Resolution for the establishment of an independent Jewish State in Palestine, and called upon the inhabitants of the country to take such steps as may be necessary on their part to put the plan into effect.

Summary (Israel and Palestine and sugar production- book- Strayer, Robert)

It was a big  victory for Jewish people when Israel announced about  establishment of the independent state of in 1948. Definitely it was The most historically significant achievement for Jewish people to return to their ancient biblical homeland after suffering of homeless  around the world  for long time . Jews had lived in diaspora in the Middle East, North Africa, or Europe, with smaller numbers of a Jewish presence in what was then called Palestine. establishing a home for the Jewish people in Palestine formally started in Europe in 1897 with the goal of creating a home for the Jewish people in Palestine. during the 1920s and 1930s a growing number of Jewish started to emigration to their ancient homeland, especially after several years following World War II. During that war around  6 million Jews died  in Nazi death camps when  Hitler  wanted  to rid Europe of a Jewish presence. Many of those could  escaped from the Holocaust to refuge and security in a land of their own. And that was one of the majority reason force  Jewish to find and make their own land. At the same time, the Arabs of Palestine found themself homeless . and their national identity became the camp. most of them had lost their land and had lived for several generations as refugees in overcrowded camps  in neighboring countries or territories where they were dependent on services provided by the United Nations. Palestinians people suffered of oppressed, constrained, or discriminated against by Israeli authorities.


Olaudah Equiano, The Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavo Vassa, The African

1) What does this memoir tell us about the organization and extent of slavery in the eighteenth-century Atlantic world?

· Equiano’s memories show in much extent the level of organization that the slavery business as a profitable as it was had during the 18th century. Religious excuses such as the fact that the Africans were away from God or cursed were also used to excuse all the horrors done to them by the Europeans.

2) What does this selection indicate about Equilano’s African home and African culture?

· The selection shows that Equiano’s African home and culture were not underdeveloped or primitive as the white European considered them to be. However differences indeed existed and a clear evidence of that was the fact that the first time Equiano’s saw a horse was when he arrived at his final destiny. It also shows the differences between African slaves had initially belonged to different parts of Africa, since the other Africans had already seen men riding horses while Equiano’s hadn’t.

· Mr. Strayer shows in his book how the African commerce of slave was during almost 2 centuries one of the main business for the European people. He also stresses the fact that the slavery was only successful due to the cooperation of other Africans that were willing to capture and sell one of its own people, as it was any other merchandise. This fact was corroborated by the memories of Equiano’s that was captured by another African.


Thomas Nelson, Slavery and the Slave Trade of Brazil

1) What diseases did Nelson describe as being most prevalent among the Africans who survived the Atlantic crossing? Roughly what proportion of slaves arrived in Brazil compared to those who left African ports?

· While working on board of the H.M.S Crescent Thomas Nelson faced closely the miserable conditions that the Africans slaves were put through during their trip from África to Brazil.The most commons diseases that the slaves had were: smallpox, virulent ophtalmia , extreme emaciation, exhaustion. In the bigger part of cases out of 400 negros that were send in the cross only 300 used to make until the Brazilian coast, due to the extremely conditions of scarce water, food ant etc…

2) Compare Nelson’s account of conditions aboard slave ships with Equiano’s personal memoir?

· Both Equiano’s personal memories of the time he spend inside a slave ship and Nelson in the time he spend been a doctor inside a British ship responsible for intercepting slave ships corroborate the fact that the slaves their Atlantic cross were put under inhuman conditions, such as the lack of space, ventilation, water, food and anything someone needs to live. Equiano’s memories show how nasty and tenebrous was the life of slave that had been captured and lost their freedom to one their own African brother because of greed. Nelson details with perfection in medical terms how awful the Atlantic cross was for the slaves health and ended up been sick or dead when they got near the Brazilian coast.

· One thing that Strayers stresses in his analysis over the African commerce is the final destination of the bigger part of the Africans were the Caribbean countries and Brazil that were the major market for slave buying, corroborating to the stories of Nelson that took place almost all the time on the Brazilian coast.

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