Psychology

Chapter 6

Part 4—Synthesizing and Evaluating Concepts (5 points):

Using your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes, answer each question by typing your response in the space provided below. For each question, your answer should be one or more healthy paragraphs (Your total answer should be at least 100 words or more).

1. The information-processing of memory is one of the best-known models in all of  psychology. Describe the three stages of memory and their characteristics.  Explain how the three-stage model of memory might explain the famous serial  position effect.

2. What is iconic memory? Describe what it is and how it works. Be sure to include  a description of Sperling’s experiment, which was used to demonstrate and  investigate iconic memory.

3. What is meant by a flashbulb memory? Describe its characteristics. Give an  example that is well-known. Some psychologists are not impressed by these  well-known examples of this phenomenon. What are some of the criticisms of the  idea of flashbulb memory?

4. Let’s say you are a defense attorney and are defending a client on a murder  charge. The victim was found in a dark alley. A witness had a glimpse of a  shadowy figure standing over the body. The police thoroughly interrogate the  witness and arrest a young man. The man has an alibi. There is no other  evidence against him, except that of the witness. The witness is positive. What  factors may lead you to doubt this strong testimony of the witness? Pretend you  are the defense attorney and, with your knowledge of the problems with  eyewitness testimony and memory, tell the jury why they should be doubtful of  the witness.

5. The other day, you had to remember some items for an important exam. You are  sure you studied them and knew them before you entered the classroom.  However, you drew a blank when you took the test. What happened? Why might  you not have remembered them? What might you have done to avoid this?

Chapter 7

Part 4—Synthesizing and Evaluating Concepts (5 points):

Using your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes, answer each question by typing your response in the space provided below. For each question, your answer should be one or more healthy paragraphs (Your total answer should be at least 100 words or more).

1. Explain the techniques used when someone tries to solve a problem. How might  a person be blocked in trying to find a solution?

2. Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. This is  a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of  guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. Agatha could go the library and  research this, using the social science literature. Instead, Agatha just reads the  local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies where the “bad guy”  used a firearm. Agatha is using a heuristic device that is impeding or obstructing  her thinking. Define this heuristic device. What might be a better way for her to  examine the issue and avoid this mistake?

3. It is commonly thought that people who are “gifted” have various physical,  psychological, and personality problems. What is really known about this  common idea, and what did a famous study learn about the gifted?

4. Discuss how heredity is related to intelligence and IQ scores. What is the  controversy about the role of race and ethnicity in IQ and intelligence? Evaluate  the claims of those who think race is related to IQ and intelligence.

5. What is the definition of language? What is the evidence, pro and con, as to  whether nonhuman animals have a capacity for language?

Chapter 8

Part 4—Synthesizing and Evaluating Concepts (5 points):

Using your knowledge from the textbook and/or lecture notes, answer each question by typing your response in the space provided below. For each question, your answer should be one or more healthy paragraphs (Your total answer should be at least 100 words or more).

1. Distinguish the major research methods used in the field of human development  and provide examples of each. What are the advantages and disadvantages of  each?

2. What is the critical period? What are teratogens? List four common teratogens  and discuss their effects on development.

3. Summarize Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development and the major  milestones accomplished, as well as the limitations at each stage.

4. Summarize Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development. Provide an  example for each stage that describes successful resolution of each stage.

5. Summarize Kübler-Ross’s five stages of death and dying. How are they  experienced?

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