Psychology

(p. 25) ______________ is formally defined as a feedback process whereby nature favors one design over another, depending on whether it has an impact on reproduction.

Answers
1. A. Natural selection
2. B. Satisficing
3. C. Collective efficacy
4. D. Reciprocal logrolling
(p. 32) In the context of electronic interactions, being privately public means:

Answers
1. A. connecting with many other people, while being relatively nonpublic about revealing who you are.
2. B. avoiding online interactions with those people whom you have never met face-to-face.
3. C. you ensure that you remove all the traces of your electronic interactions.
4. D. you disclose a lot of details of your private life and may or may not limit access to your site.
(p. 23) According to the nature-only view, who we are comes from:

Answers
1. A. environmental forces.
2. B. our experiences.
3. C. inborn tendencies and genetically based traits.
4. D. introspection and analysis.
(p. 25) Without chance mutations, which of the following would occur?

Answers
1. A. Human species would become a superspecies.
2. B. Our thoughts and behavior will depend entirely on our genetic makeup.
3. C. There would be no evolution.
4. D. Our thoughts and behavior will depend entirely on our upbringing and experiences.
(p. 32) In the context of electronic interactions, being publicly private means:

Answers
1. A. connecting with many other people, while being relatively nonpublic about revealing who you are.
2. B. avoiding online interactions with those people whom you have never met face-to-face.
3. C. ensuring that you remove all the traces of your electronic interactions.
4. D. disclosing a lot of details of your private life.
(p. 26) ______________ psychology is the branch of psychology that aims to uncover the adaptive problems the human mind may have solved in the distant past.

Answers
1. A. Clinical
2. B. Cognitive
3. C. Evolutionary
4. D. Developmental
(p. 31) Julie is a psychologist and she is conducting research on the effect of talking on a hands-free cell phone while driving. Based on this information we can say that Julie is a(n) ______________ psychologist.

Answers
1. A. cognitive
2. B. developmental
3. C. evolutionary
4. D. educational
(p. 31) More than just about any other area of psychology, ______________ psychology lends itself to a rich set of research questions regarding electronic interactions.

Answers
1. A. clinical
2. B. positive
3. C. cognitive
4. D. social
(p. 32) Which of the following questions is most likely to be answered by a personality psychologist?

Answers
1. A. How much of people`s personalities is reflected in their Facebook profiles?
2. B. At what age does usage of Internet social networks peak?
3. C. Will people above the age of sixty use the Internet?
4. D. Does gender affect interest and participation in social networking sites?
(p. 25) With respect to biological species, evolution is based on _____________.

Answers
1. A. the tabula rasa concept
2. B. the product of our experiences.
3. C. proper parenting skills
4. D. gene frequency
(p. 31) Which of the following types of psychologists is most likely to conduct research on the age at which the usage of Internet social networks peaks?

Answers
1. A. Evolutionary psychologist
2. B. Developmental psychologist
3. C. Clinical psychologist
4. D. Educational psychologist
(p. 25) Spontaneous changes in genes are called _____________.

Answers
1. A. differential selections
2. B. softwirings
3. C. chance mutations
4. D. external adaptations
(p. 23) According to the nurture-only view, we are the product of our:

Answers
1. A. inherited traits.
2. B. experiences.
3. C. genetic makeup.
4. D. innate biology.
(p. 25) Which of the following terms refers to inherited solutions to ancestral problems that have been naturally selected because they directly contribute in some way to reproductive success?

Answers
1. A. Adaptation
2. B. Differential selection
3. C. Circular logrolling
4. D. Satisficing
(p. 25) Which of the following individuals is known for his theory of natural selection?

Answers
1. A. Edward Titchener
2. B. Charles Darwin
3. C. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
4. D. Martin Seligman
(p. 20) Which of the following is used as a metaphor for human mind in cognitive psychology?

Answers
1. A. Light switch
2. B. Camera
3. C. Computer
4. D. Transmitter
(p. 26) Jack is a psychologist. Rather than just describing what the mind does, he is more interested in the functions of the human mind. Jack is a(n) ______________ psychologist.

Answers
1. A. gestalt
2. B. evolutionary
3. C. positive
4. D. clinical
(p. 23) The point of view that human behavior is solely the result of ______________ appears to be a very Western, very North American idea.

Answers
1. A. genetics
2. B. nature
3. C. nurture
4. D. inborn tendencies
(p. 31) Steve is conducting a research on how cell phones and other electronic methods of communication have changed the way teenagers interact with others. This information indicates that Steve is a(n) ______________ psychologist.

Answers
1. A. educational
2. B. clinical
3. C. developmental
4. D. evolutionary
(p. 27) ______________ are behavioral adaptations.

Answers
1. A. Chance mutations
2. B. Softwirings
3. C. Emotions
4. D. Habits
(p. 24) According to the view of mind-body dualism:

Answers
1. A. the soul is the confluence of mind and body.
2. B. the mind controls the body.
3. C. the mind and the body are controlled by our genetic makeup.
4. D. the mind and the body refer to the same entity.
(p. 28) Exaptations are also called _____________.

Answers
1. A. adaptations
2. B. chance mutations
3. C. habits
4. D. by-products
(p. 28) According to evolutionary psychology, language and science are examples of _____________.

Answers
1. A. chance mutations
2. B. natural selection
3. C. by-products of adaptation
4. D. softwiring
(p. 32) Facebook profiles are:

Answers
1. A. idealized images of who we want to be.
2. B. images of who we want others to ideally perceive us to be.
3. C. accurate representations of our true personalities.
4. D. the personalities that we and our close friends actually perceive.
(p. 25) ______________ creates structures and behaviors that solve adaptive problems.

Answers
1. A. Softwiring
2. B. Natural selection
3. C. Reciprocal logrolling
4. D. Collective efficacy
(p. 31) Which of the following topics is most likely to be studied by a developmental psychologist?

Answers
1. A. How much of people`s personality is reflected in their Facebook profiles?
2. B. Are people who interact extensively with other people via Facebook more or less outgoing than those who do not?
3. C. What is the effect of talking on a hands-free cell phone while driving?
4. D. What is the effect of gender on interest and participation in social networking sites?
(p. 21) According to ______________ psychology, who we are, how we got here, and what we do and think are a result of brain activity and are influenced by genetic factors.

Answers
1. A. Gestalt
2. B. cognitive
3. C. educational
4. D. evolutionary
(p. 32) Anna is conducting research to find out if people who interact extensively with other people via Facebook are more or less outgoing than those who do not. Anna is most likely a ______________ psychologist.

Answers
1. A. health
2. B. personality
3. C. social
4. D. clinical
(p. 24) In psychology, the idea that the mind and the body are separate entities is referred to as:

Answers
1. A. nature through nurture.
2. B. mind-body dualism.
3. C. cogito ergo sum.
4. D. evolutionary theory.
(p. 20) The British psychologist Frederick Bartlett wrote a book that promoted a cognitive psychological view in the 1930s. According to Frederick Bartlett:

Answers
1. A. memory is not an objective and accurate representation of events but rather a highly personal reconstruction based on one`s own beliefs, ideas, and point of view.
2. B. psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives.
3. C. a detailed analysis of experience as it happens provides the most accurate glimpse into the workings of the human mind.
4. D. our experiences during childhood are a powerful force in the development of our adult personality.
(p. 23) Kat believes that human behavior is solely the result of genetic coding. Her point of view is referred to as the ______________ view.

Answers
1. A. nature-only
2. B. nurture-only
3. C. environment-only
4. D. evolution-only
(p. 23) For millennia thinkers have argued over what determines our personality and behavior: innate biology or life experience. This conflict is known as the ______________ debate.

Answers
1. A. nature-nurture
2. B. mind-body
3. C. internal-external
4. D. evolutionary-environmental
(p. 32) Which of the following statements is true regarding electronic interactions?

Answers
1. A. Electronic interactions can be easily used to hide one`s `real personality.`
2. B. Electronic interaction is a preferred method of contact for extroverts.
3. C. People use the Internet to arrange real face-to-face meetings.
4. D. Electronic interactions have resulted in new boundaries between public and private means of connecting.
(p. 23) Which of the following terms best represents the view that biological systems involved in thought and behavior—genes, brain structures, brains cells, etc.—are inherited but are still open to modification from the environment?

Answers
1. A. Natural selection
2. B. Environmental evolution
3. C. Mind-body dualism
4. D. Softwiring
(p. 27) ______________ are quick and ready response patterns that tell us whether something is good or bad for our well-being.

Answers
1. A. Habits
2. B. Chance mutations
3. C. Softwirings
4. D. Emotions
(p. 24) ______________ philosophy emphasizes the interdependence of body and mind.

Answers
1. A. Clinical
2. B. Gestalt
3. C. Eastern
4. D. Developmental
(p. 23) In terms of the nature-nurture debate, psychologists’ contemporary view is that human behavior is:

Answers
1. A. mostly a product of biology, inborn tendencies, and genetically based traits.
2. B. mostly a product of environmental experience.
3. C. a product of the interdependence between biology and experience.
4. D. solely a product of ancestral influences.
(p. 23) Which of the following is shown by Kandel (2006) with respect to certain genes in the human brain?

Answers
1. A. They cannot facilitate new connections between neurons in an adult brain.
2. B. They are all present and functional at birth.
3. C. They do not differ between organisms despite variations in experience.
4. D. They can be turned on or off by our experiences.
(p. 24) In the 17th century, ______________ proposed a theory that the mind was separate from the body.

Answers
1. A. John Locke
2. B. Aristotle
3. C. René Descartes
4. D. Max Wertheimer
(p. 24) As compared to babies of uninfected mothers, babies whose mothers fought off infectious diseases when they were pregnant were _____________.

Answers
1. A. more likely to develop advanced language skills
2. B. more likely to develop schizophrenia
3. C. less likely to develop major a depressive disorder
4. D. less likely to engage in peer conflicts as children
(p. 28) According to evolutionary psychology, feathers are examples of _____________.

Answers
1. A. adaptation
2. B. exaptations
3. C. natural selection
4. D. chance mutations
(p. 20) By the 1980s, cognitive science combined many disciplines in addition to psychology. Which of the following is one of these disciplines?

Answers
1. A. Etymology
2. B. Genealogy
3. C. Chemistry
4. D. Anthropology
(p. 27-28) Structures or features that perform a function that did not arise through natural selection are often called _____________.

Answers
1. A. exaptations
2. B. adaptations
3. C. chance mutations – Given
4. D. habits
(p. 24) Contemporary psychologists agree that what we call the mind results from the functioning of our brain, and since the brain is part of our body, ______________ cannot be true.

Answers
1. A. mind-body dualism
2. B. the tabula rasa concept
3. C. Gestalt psychology
4. D. positive psychology
(p. 26) Early humans, as hunter-gatherers, did not know when they would find food. If they found fat, they ate it, because fat could be stored in the body and used later when food might be scarce. For this reason, humans evolved to like fat. Human cravings have not changed much, even though our environments have. So our preference for fatty foods can be attributed to _____________.

Answers
1. A. softwiring
2. B. differential selection
3. C. collective efficacy
4. D. adaptation
(p. 24) Which of the following concepts allows for the idea that a soul survives bodily death?

Answers
1. A. Nature versus nurture
2. B. Natural selection
3. C. Evolutionary theory
4. D. Mind-body dualism

 

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