1. Reference groups influence us in three ways. These influences include informational, utilitarian, and ________ dimensions.

a. reputational

b. value-expressive

c. descriptive

d. knowledge


2. Within groups, informal rules of behavior are called ________.

a. interpersonal dynamics

b. norms

c. values

d. beliefs


3. According to the principle of least interest, the person who is least ________ has the most power in a relationship.

a. committed to staying in the relationship

b. concerned about sanctions against nonconforming behavior

c. susceptible to interpersonal influence

d. susceptible to cultural pressures


4. A marketing manager who wants to identify opinion leaders for her product category should do which of the following?

a. She should find intellectuals who can write and speak well so that communication will be facilitated.

b. She should find government officials who use the product.

c. She should find socially active persons who are intensely interested in the product category and who are similar to other customers.

d. She should look for people who stand out in a crowd.


5. ________ refers to the strategy of getting visitors to a website to forward information on the site to their friends in order to make still more consumers aware of a product.

a. Viral marketing

b. Foot-in-door marketing

c. Demand-based marketing

d. Guerrilla marketing


6. Social networking is an integral part of what many call ________, which is characterized by interactive platforms that foster the creation of communities.

a. Web 2.0

b. the mega Web

c. the inner Web

d. the virtual world


7. Which form of reference group influence is most associated with the following situation? Carl knows that Bert has had experience with various types of motor oils because Bert is a mechanic for a large Cadillac dealership. Carl asks Bert to compare his brand against Quaker State. Bert tells Carl that Quaker State can’t be beat for performance and durability.

a. informational influence

b. value-expressive influence

c. utilitarian influence

d. coercive influence


8. Every summer, thousands of bikers converge on Sturgis, South Dakota, filling up every campground, motel, and hotel within miles of the city. This annual meeting is an example of a gathering of a(n) ________.

a. consumer tribe

b. maven network

c. aspirational group

d. normative clan


9. Propinquity is a factor that is related to the power of a reference group. How will it influence the relative power between a membership group and an avoidance group?

a. Propinquity should make membership groups weaker than avoidance groups because the motivation to distance oneself is increased with closeness.

b. Propinquity will have no influence on either membership groups or avoidance groups.

c. Propinquity should make membership groups and avoidance groups equal in potential power.

d. Propinquity should make membership groups much stronger than avoidance groups.


10. With respect to social organization, some barnyard animals exhibit signs of a dominance- submission hierarchy. Which of the following terms best communicates such a hierarchy?

a. dog-eat-dog

b. follow-the-leader

c. king-of-the-hill

d. pecking order


11. Which of the following theorists is best known for arguing that an individual’s relationship to the means of production determines his position in society?

a. Max Weber

b. Horatio Alger

c. Karl Marx

d. Thorstein Veblen


12. Social analyst Thorstein Veblen believed that we buy things to create ________. This means we use our purchases to inspire envy in others through our display of wealth or power.

a. status crystallization

b. invidious distinction

c. affluenza

d. cultural capital


13. ________ defines a pattern of consumption reflecting a person’s choices on how he or she spends their time and money.

a. Habitus

b. Lifestyle

c. Social class

d. Cultural capital


14. Richard worked very hard on his grades and worked after school part time to be able to afford tutors to help him advance his education. When he was named number one in his class, he earned a certain status. The best term to describe the form of status that Richard earned is ________.

a. achieved status

b. classification status

c. ascribed status

d. reference group affiliation


15. Jason is a marketing researcher working for a client who believes that social class will be an important segmenting device. Jason decides to find social class categories by simply asking respondents to pick their own category. Which of the following best supports Jason’s approach?

a. American consumers are generally better able to identify their neighbors’ social class than their own social class.

b. Most Americans don’t mind talking about social class but usually get their own wrong.

c. American consumers generally have little difficulty accurately placing themselves in the lower-middle class or middle class.

d. Respondents will list the social class they wish to belong to rather than the one they actually occupy.


16. With 12. 5 percent of the population, the ________ population is the largest ethnic subculture in America.

a. American Indian

b. Hispanic American

c. African-American

d. Asian-American


17. Hispanic Americans are primarily (60 percent) of ________ descent.

a. Mexican

b. Puerto Rican

c. Dominican

d. South American


18. Which of the following distinguishes Asian Americans from other subcultures in the United States?

a. Asian Americans have the distinction of having a common language that acts as a unifying cultural agent.

b. Asian Americans constitute the largest subculture in the United States.

c. Asian American households are larger than most other ethnic households in America.

d. Asian Americans are the best educated of any ethnic subculture in the United States.


19. Japan is a very tightly knit culture with rich history and social identification. In this culture, people tend to infer meanings that go beyond the spoken word. This classifies Japan as a ________ culture.

a. paradigm

b. progressive

c. high-context

d. low-context


20. One of the goals of marketing to Gen Yers has been to allow them to remain free of the restraints of wires and cords, but still be connected to any media at any time. The lifestyle created by this approach is referred to as ________.

a. connexity

b. identity renaissance

c. cosplay

d. distinct-styling


21. A story containing symbolic elements that express the shared emotions and ideals of a culture is called a ________.

a. more

b. norm

c. ritual

d. myth


22. Which of the following is NOT one of the three distinct stages of gift-giving rituals?

a. presentation

b. convention

c. gestation

d. reformulation


23. Which of the following is an object that is admired strictly for its beauty or because it inspires an emotional reaction?

a. a craft product

b. a reality-engineered product

c. a trial product

d. an art product


24. A ________ innovation is a new product that creates major changes in the way we live.

a. globally continuous

b. discontinuous

c. dynamically continuous

d. continuous


25. Country singers Marty Stewart and Travis Tritt and their record label decided to change the culture of the Country and Western music scene. With their now famous “No Hats” tour, the singers abandoned conventional country and western fashion (they threw away their hats, let their hair grow long, and wore t-shirts) and tried to appeal to larger and younger audiences with a grinding sexy message. The process that these singers went through is best described as a ________.

a. cultural gatekeeping process (CGP)

b. cultural funnel

c. cultural distribution system (CDS)

d. cultural production system (CPS)

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