1. When is a consumer most likely to engage in extended problem solving?

a. This decision mode is most common when acceptable products are already contained within the consumer’s evoked set.

b. This decision mode is most common when the decision is related to the person’s self- concept and the outcome has a high degree of risk.

c. This decision mode is most common when the decision is related to products that are considered to have low self-concept involvement.

d. This decision mode is most common when the decision is related to the person’s past behavior and product reinforcements.


2. A consumer who moves his or her ideal state upward is experiencing ________.

a. need recognition

b. search recognition

c. habitual recognition

d. opportunity recognition


3. As a customer’s product knowledge increases, what typically happens to the amount of search conducted by the consumer?

a. It will continually increase.

b. It will continually decrease.

c. It will decrease, and then increase as the customer becomes more knowledgeable.

d. It will increase, and then decrease as the customer becomes more knowledgeable.


4. The alternatives actively considered during a consumer’s choice process are his or her ________ set.

a. evaluative

b. evoked

c. inert

d. consideration


5. According to the theory called ________, a company can make money if it sells small amounts of items that only a few people want if the company sells enough different items.

a. feature creep

b. Zipf’s Law

c. neuromarketing

d. the long tail


6. A ________ rule means that a product with a low standing on one attribute cannot make up for this position by being better on another attribute.

a. conjunctive

b. compensatory decision

c. lexicographic

d. noncompensatory decision


7. Kent, a college student, is a loyal Coca-Cola drinker. He averages about six Cokes a day. He even prefers Coke to water. However, today when he passed a vending machine in his dorm, he bought a new flavor of soft drink called Big Red. Which of the following most accurately explains his behavior, given the facts about Kent’s previous behavior?

a. Kent is involved in extended problem solving.

b. Kent is brand switching.

c. Kent is influenced by peer pressure.

d. Kent is variety seeking.


8. Of the following products, which one would typically carry high psychological risk for the average consumer?

a. a lawn mower

b. a family vacation to a theme park

c. a kitchen blender

d. an expensive mink coat


9. Coca-Cola is an example of a(n) ________ product because it has come to characterize an entire category of soft drinks.

a. evoked

b. exemplar

c. heuristic

d. criteria


10. Latrell finds that every time he goes to select athletic shoes, he always buys the same brand. In fact, he doesn’t even remember trying on any of the other competitive brands even though some of these brands have attractive styles and prices. Latrell’s purchase decision process has become one of less and less effort. Latrell’s decision process is an example of ________.

a. ineptness

b. cognitive dissonance

c. inertia

d. information discrimination


11. A small company, Craig Inventions, produced a pill that had the nutrient value of a healthy breakfast. The company put the product on the market as a substitute for breakfast for busy people. The product failed. Craig Inventions then marketed the pill as a diet product and it became very successful. What does the example best demonstrate?

a. The company confused a subordinate level with a basic level of categorization, which led to the company’s failure to identify the product’s most important competitors.

b. The company did not position the product well. It was difficult to convince consumers that a pill was a breakfast on the superordinate level; however, it did appear to fit appropriately within the superordinate category of diet pills.

c. The company confused a superordinate level with a subordinate level of categorization.

d. The determinant attributes between diet pills and breakfast were not sufficiently strong.


12. Most Americans will state that they are always rushed for time even though many people have opportunities for leisure. This perception is referred to as ________.

a. circular time

b. psychological time

c. the leisure paradox

d. time poverty


13. A ________ orientation dimension distinguishes between people who prefer to do one thing at a time and those who have multitasking timestyles.

a. social

b. planning

c. temporal

d. polychronic


14. Which of the following cultures is likely to see time as cyclic?

a. Hispanic

b. German

c. Swiss

d. American


15. Which of the following is considered a limitation of e-commerce?

a. lack of reasonable delivery times

b. higher prices than in-store prices

c. expensive to order and then return

d. lack of real-time pricing


16. In-store shopping has become extremely important in today’s highly competitive retail environment. It has been estimated that about ________ of supermarket purchases are decided in the aisles as consumers shop.

a. one-half

b. two-thirds

c. four-fifths

d. one-quarter


17. Which of the following best identifies what consumers primarily look for in products?

a. quality and value

b. price and warranty

c. quality and warranty

d. color and style


18. The Japanese believe that successful total quality management can be achieved by going to the one true source of information called the ________.

a. ISO

b. gestalt

c. gemba

d. sigma


19. Julie Morgan loves to go into Springer’s Old Country Gifts. It always smells like a field of spring flowers. The lighting gives all the products a warm glow, and the mood music is just perfect for casual browsing. After her visit to the store, Julie is always in a better mood. Springer’s Old Country Gifts has attracted Julie with its ________.

a. store position

b. atmospherics

c. marketscape theme

d. subliminal cues


20. A number of specific decision roles are played when a collective decision must be made. The person who brings up the idea or need is the ________.

a. initiator

b. influencer

c. gatekeeper

d. buyer


21. Many factors have been identified that distinguish organizational and industrial purchase decisions from individual consumer decisions. Which of the following is NOT one of those distinctions?

a. Organizational purchase decisions tend to be riskier than individual consumer purchase decisions.

b. Organizational and industrial products are often bought according to precise, technical specifications.

c. Impulse buying commonly occurs in organizational purchasing because of sales stimulation from direct salespeople.

d. Purchase decisions made by companies frequently involve many people.


22. Which of the following refers to couples who both have incomes and do not have children?

a. boom-babies


c. boomerangers



23. Julie wants to go back to school. It will cost a lot of money and affect Jeff, her husband. They sit down together and work out a plan that will allow Julie to finish her degree. This is an example of a(n) ________ decision.

a. syncretic

b. autonomic

c. convergent

d. family-flow


24. Jennifer and Ted have been married about six months. One of Jennifer’s complaints about Ted’s behavior during their brief marriage is that he seems to make all the decisions when the couple has to purchase high-risk or expensive durables (such as furniture or a new car). Ted is making ________ decisions.

a. synoptic

b. syncretic

c. consensual

d. autonomic


25. Meredith works hard to keep her family together in this fast-paced world. She coordinates visits with relatives, calls and writes often to her parents and grandparents, and makes sure her husband remembers all significant birthdays and anniversaries. In this example, Meredith is primarily responsible for the continuation of the family’s ________.

a. customer networks

b. kin-network system

c. cognitive development

d. life cycle

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