1. Whether a consumer’s need is utilitarian or hedonic, the ________ it creates determines the urgency the consumer feels to reduce it.

a. reinforcement

b. magnitude of the tension

c. expectancy

d. direction of the tension


2. When a woman buys expensive jewelry, which of the following needs is most likely being expressed?

a. biogenic

b. rational

c. utilitarian

d. hedonic


3. What type of conflict exists when we desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time?

a. avoidance-avoidance conflict

b. approach-approach conflict

c. direction-valence conflict

d. approach-avoidance conflict


4. Which of the following needs from Maslow’s Hierarchy is addressed by the U.S. Army’s advertising slogan “Be all you can be”?

a. safety needs

b. self-actualization needs

c. belongingness needs

d. ego needs


5. Which of the following is characterized by a sense of playfulness, a distorted sense of time, and mental enjoyment of the activity for its own sake?

a. inertia

b. flow state

c. homeostasis

d. cognitive dissonance


6. A(n) ________ approach assumes that very specific product attributes are linked at levels of increasing abstraction to terminal values.

a. means-end chain model

b. List of Values

c. instrumental value

d. abstract model


7. Franz Schmidt is a German teenager. His father was recently transferred to Tokyo, Japan. Franz realizes that he will have to make a big adjustment to be successful in this new environment. As Franz and his family make an adjustment to the Japanese culture, they will go through a learning process called ________.

a. acculturation

b. laddering

c. enculturation

d. globalization


8. Lindsay believed that customers would come to view her new resort hotel with high personal involvement because it was a quality property with an excellent view. Instead, she found that many of her customers came to the hotel only when she offered special price discounts. What aspect of consumer involvement had Lindsay ignored?

a. Lindsay forgot that consumer involvement is primarily a function of price; other factors such as quality are relatively unimportant.

b. Lindsay forgot that consumer involvement develops only over long periods of time, and most tourists simply don’t have the time to become involved consumers.

c. Lindsay forgot that most consumers are apathetic about travel, irrespective of the quality of facilities at their travel destinations.

d. Lindsay forgot that consumer involvement includes personal factors and situational factors as well as object factors.


9. Why are approach-approach conflicts likely to create more cognitive dissonance than approach-avoidance conflicts?

a. Approach-approach conflicts are very confusing to resolve intellectually, but approach-avoidance conflicts are typically simply resolved through behavioral aspects of reinforcement learning.

b. Approach-avoidance conflicts create inertia, thus past habits are employed without the need to resolve the cognitive inconsistencies.

c. Approach-avoidance conflicts result when the positive alternative simply overwhelms the negative, thus no cognitive dissonance exists under this condition.

d. Approach-approach conflicts result when both alternatives are positive. The selection of one requires the rejection of another, which creates a need for a cognitive explanation of why one positive choice was not selected.


10. “Casual Fridays” in American workplaces encourage the expression of a person’s ________.

a. virtual self

b. cultural self

c. dual self

d. unique self


11. ________ refers to the positivity of a person’s self-concept.

a. Social comparison

b. Self-image

c. Self-esteem

d. Self-concept


12. Matthew assumes the virtual identity of Vlad the Conqueror and is able to see himself in an online game as an armored attack robot. This visual identity is called a(n) ________.

a. distorted self-image

b. avatar

c. ideal self

d. extended self


13. ________ refers to the possession of both masculine and feminine traits.

a. Dysmorphia

b. Heterosexuality

c. Homosexuality

d. Androgyny


14. Shanshea worked hard to finish her engineering degree at M.I.T., and she proudly displays a bumper sticker declaring “M.I.T. Engineer” on her car. This bumper sticker is an example of a(n) ________.

a. avatar

b. platform

c. badge

d. cathexis


15. Jake is a high school wrestler who often struggles to “make weight” to qualify for his desired weight category for a wrestling meet. Jake often weighs himself ten times a day and tightly controls how much he eats, feeling miserable about any appearance of fat on his body and disguising his body in baggy pants and roomy sweatshirts. If he doesn’t reach his desired weight, Jake feels like a failure. This is an example of ________.

a. androgyny

b. body dysmorphic disorders

c. fattism

d. dimorphic markers


16. In a Freudian interpretation, which of the following is most closely associated with the pleasure principle?

a. the superego

b. the id

c. the anti-ego

d. the ego


17. Esso (now Exxon in the United States) used the work of Ernest Dichter to influence its “Put a Tiger in Your Tank” ad campaign. Which of the following conclusions formed the rationale for the famous campaign?

a. The size of the tiger enhances a male’s ego.

b. The tiger supplies powerful animal symbolism and it contains vaguely sexual undertones.

c. Orange and black are two of the most powerful colors in the color spectrum.

d. The playful nature of the tiger is appealing to female consumers.


18. Jim sees himself as being confident, powerful, and heroic. According to the BrandAsset Archetypes model developed by ad agency Young & Rubicam, Jim would be classified as a ________.

a. Sage

b. Warrior

c. Patriarch

d. Troubadour


19. Lee-Ann Wang is young and enjoys risky experiences such as skydiving, bungee jumping, and snowboarding. To which of the following VALS2 groups would Lee-Ann most likely belong?

a. Experiencers

b. Thinkers

c. Achievers

d. Strivers


20. Jeffrey Quills is seen by his friends as a somewhat strange person. At times he is lovable, warm, and friendly. At other times he can be mean-spirited, uncaring, and hostile to all who know him. Which of the following general statements about personality most closely matches what friends observe about Jeffrey?

a. Psychologists agree that a standard personality component exists in all people.

b. Most psychologists have completely abandoned the concept of personality.

c. Many studies have found that people do not seem to exhibit stable personalities.

d. People have a standard personality that can be identified as belonging to one of five categories.


21. The theory of cognitive dissonance is based on the ________.

a. principle of cognitive-affect conflict

b. knowledge function

c. principle of cognitive consistency

d. self-identification function


22. What does the sleeper effect suggest about source credibility?

a. The effectiveness of a message will increase over time.

b. Many people can learn the important parts of a message even when asleep.

c. The effectiveness of positive sources over negative sources can be erased over time.

d. If a receiver is not paying attention, a message cannot be effective.


23. Source ________ refers to the message source’s perceived social value.

a. attractiveness

b. hierarchy

c. valence

d. class


24. The ________ route to persuasion is taken when the receiver is not really motivated to think about the arguments made in a communication message.

a. peripheral

b. central

c. dual

d. subconscious


25. The Berry and Dale advertising agency has proposed a new campaign for Bayer Aspirin to overcome the public’s tendency to “tune out” Bayer commercials. The proposed technique will be to create ten different 15-second spots that all demonstrate reasons for using Bayer Aspirin. Which of the following theories of message communication is the agency trying to account for in its proposal for Bayer Aspirin?

a. the theory of reasoned action

b. the two-factor theory

c. the balanced communication theory

d. the trait-factor theory

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