Psychology

PART 1


1. Wal-Mart tracks the habits of the 100 million customers who visit its stores each week and responds with products and services directed toward those customers’ needs based on the information collected. This is an example of ________ marketing.

a. undifferentiated

b. relationship

c. consumer-generated

d. database

 

2. A consumer with a(n) ________ attachment to a product uses the product as part of his or her daily routine.

a. nostalgic

b. interdependent

c. positivist

d. psychographic

 

3. A digital native is someone who ________.

a. is a heavy user of alternate reality games (ARGs)

b. grew up in a “wired” and highly networked world

c. belongs to a consumption community

d. participates in database marketing

 

4. The National Advertising Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus is an example of a(n) ________. a. industry watchdog

b. social marketer

c. culture jammer

d. federal agency

 

5. Researchers who argue that the field of consumer behavior should not be a “handmaiden to business” believe that consumer behavior research should ________.

a. be judged in terms of its ability to improve marketing practices

b. focus on understanding consumption for its own sake

c. have a market-oriented focus

d. aim to apply knowledge to increasing profits

 

6. Which of the following social science fields would most likely be associated with macro consumer behavior?

a. cultural anthropology

b. clinical psychology

c. experimental psychology

d. human ecology

 

7. A student of postmodernism is most likely to believe that the world in which we live is a(n) ________, or a mixture of images.

a. consumerspace

b. paradigm

c. pastiche

d. alternate reality

 

8. Jenny Rowlins is absolutely exhausted after her shopping trip to pick out a dress for her sorority’s formal event. The stores were crowded, and none of her favorite shops carried a dress that she liked in her size. After spending hours at the mall, Jenny gave up and decided to order her dress online and just return it if it wasn’t exactly right. This decision took place in the ________ stage of Jenny’s consumption process.

a. prepurchase

b. purchase

c. influence

d. postpurchase

 

9. Evan does business in South America. He has mastered Spanish and many cultural norms, but he still has problems with cultural differences in ethics. Many of the regulatory officials Evan must deal with expect bribes. Evan solves this problem by bringing with him a number of moderately priced watches. When an official admires his watch, Evan offers it to him or her as a gift. Later he puts a new watch on his wrist. Evan’s situation demonstrates that ________.

a. a small lapse of ethics is acceptable

b. universal values are the basis of business ethics

c. laws regulating business have become uniform because of the demands of a global economy

d. different cultures define ethical business behaviors differently

 

10. An advertisement for a national shampoo shows a plain woman using the product, then transforming to a gorgeous woman with a new hairstyle, dressed in elegant clothes, waiting for the “man of her dreams” to appear on her doorstep. This advertisement best illustrates which of the following criticisms of the marketing system?

a. Marketers create needs.

b. Marketing makes society overly materialistic.

c. Marketers control popular culture.

d. Marketers promise miracles.

 

11. George says that he sees everything as “black or white no in between.” George would most accurately be characterized as a(n) ________.

a. interpretivist

b. collectivist

c. consumerist

d. positivist

 

12. Which of the following refers to the process by which the way a word sounds influences the listener’s assumptions about what the word describes?

a. semiotics

b. audio watermarking

c. the principle of similarity

d. sound symbolism

 

13. The minimum difference that can be detected between two stimuli is known as the ________.

a. “bare” minimum

b. j.n.d. (just noticeable difference)

c. gradual differentiation

d. graded difference

 

14. According to Weber’s Law, the ________ the initial stimulus, the greater a change must be for people to notice the change.

a. stronger

b. weaker

c. more unusual

d. more common

 

15. Which of the following refers to the meanings we assign to sensory stimuli?

a. schema

b. interpretation

c. semiotics

d. perception

 

16. A new Green Giant ad campaign relied on the ________ when it used a redesigned package for Green Giant products that showed the Green Giant in a “sea of green.” It was felt that the Green Giant products were now unified under a common design banner.

a. principle of similarity

b. subliminal principle

c. closure principle

d. figure-ground principle

 

17. Lifestyle, attributes, competitors, and quality are all dimensions marketers can use to carve out a brand’s ________ in the marketplace.

a. priming

b. position

c. trade dress

d. sensory signature

 

18. Ben Perez is driving along a mountain road. In the distance, he sees a road crew working on a fallen tree that has blocked the highway. When Ben first sees the road crew, which of the following perceptual processes has been engaged?

a. interpretation

b. exposure

c. attention

d. adaptation

 

19. One of the principles of psychophysics is that changes in the physical environment are not always matched by equal changes perceptually. If Madison Wilson were creating a new drink, what would psychophysics tell her? a. She would need to research how the perception of “sweetness” changed by the amount of sugar added.

b. She would need to look at the subliminal aspects of “sweetness.”

c. She could make the drink twice as sweet by adding twice the amount of sugar.

d. She would need to create promotions to tell customers how “sweet” the new drink is.

 

20. Another name for instrumental conditioning is ________ conditioning.

a. reward

b. stimulus

c. operant

d. neo-classical

 

21. In instrumental conditioning, what is the distinction between negative reinforcement and punishment?

a. There is no difference. They are two words for the same thing.

b. Negative reinforcement creates a preference for negative results, while punishment teaches people to avoid negative results.

c. Negative reinforcement occurs when a negative outcome is avoided, while punishment occurs when an action causes a negative outcome.

d. Negative reinforcement can occur when a stimulus is positive, and punishment occurs when a stimulus is painful.

 

22. Determining the most effective reinforcement schedule to use with consumers is important to marketers. What type of reinforcement schedule is most likely being used when after a period of time has passed, the first response a consumer makes brings the reward?

a. fixed-interval reinforcement

b. fixed-ratio reinforcement

c. variable-interval reinforcement

d. variable-ratio reinforcement

 

23. Within a knowledge structure, which of the following is the LEAST complex knowledge unit?

a. proposition

b. schema

c. script

d. meaning

 

24. Sam Bolton hums the Purina Cat Chow jingle as he drives down the expressway. A thought suddenly occurs to Sam: “Why am I humming this stupid jingle? I don’t buy this stuff. In fact, I don’t even have a cat.” Sam knows this jingle through ________.

a. reinforcement modeling

b. incidental learning

c. operant conditioning

d. stimulus generalization

 

25. “It’s time for the Christmas shopping list,” thought Martha’s mother, so she asked Martha for a quick list of her favorite perfumes. Martha gave her mother six names that were all her “favorite.” This group constitutes Martha’s ________ set for perfume.

a. activation

b. position

c. rational

d. evoked

 

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