Colleague 2: Tammy

In the case study “Social Work Research: Chi Square”, Molly, an administrator with a regional organization asked a team of researchers to conduct an outcome evaluation of a new vocational rehabilitation program for recently paroled prison inmates (Plummer, Makris, & Brocksen, 2014). The findings of the chi square showed that the vocational rehabilitation intervention program is effective in increasing the employment status of participants. These conclusions come from two groups, which are the first 30 participants (intervention group) and the waiting list 30 participants (comparison group). The vocational rehabilitation intervention program is effective due to 18 or 60.0% that are a part of the intervention group, have full-time employment.  The Chi Square also shows that out of the comparison group, 6 or 20.7% have full-time employment, but 16 or 55.2% do not have employment, and are not participating in the program. However, if the non-employment levels from the comparison group were affected (in the program), then the study shows that there is a greater chance for full-time employment for participants.

The factors limiting the internal validity of this study is that the researcher of this study observed the comparison group and the 30 (wait list) participants were not affected by this study. Internal validity is only relevant in studies that try to establish a causal relationship and is not relevant in most observational or descriptive studies (Trochim, 2006). The intervention group was affected due to, they are already participating in the program and benefiting from the program. This group was also observed. Factors that limits the ability to draw conclusions regarding cause and effect relationships are that the test only describes the relationship between two variables, which are employment levels and treatment condition.  The study does not discuss anything prior to when the paroles where prison inmates. Employment level outcome effectiveness for recently paroled prison inmates are being studied. It doesn’t tell what was done for the program for the participants to gain full-time employment, which shows construct validity (Trochim, 2006).


Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. (Eds.). (2014b). Social work case studies: Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing.

Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Internal Validity. Retrieved from


Respond to at least two colleagues in the following ways:

· Address a colleague’s post that differs from yours with regard to at least one cultural lens and expand upon the colleague’s interpretation of Paula’s needs.

· Explain whether you might use your colleague’s strategy for addressing multiple perspectives when treating clients, and explain why.

Colleague 1: Sandra

As a social worker, might interpret the needs of Paula Cortez, the client, through the two cultural lenses you selected. 

Paula has many different needs and so as a social worker, I need to take a holistic approach in treating her. Paula is HIV positive, hepatitis C, she has multiple foot ulcers that need attention from medical providers, she is pregnant, she uses drugs, and she is also suicidal. Taking all of this into consideration from cultural lenses like socioeconomic and mental health  Paula has a quite a disadvantage. First, Paula is lacking in financial support she is not working and therefore she is unable to provide all her needs. She is unable to relocate even though she is living in fear of her baby’s father. She has easy access to the drugs and is constantly putting herself and her unborn child in danger. She also is estranged from her parents who could be her natural support as well as financial support.

I believe the Hispanic communities also have less access to healthcare and therefore she could be limited in choosing the best health care needs for, example, she will need an impatient. facility to treat her the comorbid problem she is facing once she is released from the psychiatric facility.  However, some facilities will not take her without insurance and if she is receiving Medicaid she will need prior approval and meeting other criteria. With health insurance, she could have more choices and access to faster services.

In working with the Latinos communities I understand there is a stigma associated with mental health and so she might be living in isolation afraid of what others might think. Paula is not being in compliance with her medication which is putting her more at risk for potentially harming herself and her unborn child. There are many barriers in mental health which include the usual public-health precedence agenda and its effect on funding. The difficulty of and struggle to the devolution of mental health services; challenges to implementation of mental health care in primary-care settings; the low numbers and few types of workers who are trained and supervised in mental health care; and the frequent shortage of public-health standpoints in mental health leadership.

Then, explain how, in general, you would incorporate multiple perspectives of a variety of stakeholders and/or human services professionals as you treat clients.

Paula’s team involves HIV doctor, psychiatrist, social worker, and OB nurse engaging all of these stakeholders with different perspectives we can enhance communication and promote the inclusion of underserved and under-deserved individuals. Each of these individuals has different perspectives but all are working for common goals to enhance the well-being of Paula. The Physician explained to Paula the importance of taking her medication and educating her about the treatment for the ulcers. The OB nurse is dealing with the pregnancies, the psychiatric speaks about her mental health and the importance of taking her medications.  The social worker can incorporate all these perspectives into Paula’s treatment and give her a better quality of life.

Chun-Chung Chow, J., & Austin, M. J. (2008). The culturally responsive social service agency: The application of an evolving definition to a case study. Administration in Social Work, 32(4), 39–64.

Northouse, P., G., (2013). Leadership. Theory and Practice (6th ED.). Los Angeles. Sage Publications.


Saraceno, B., van Ommeren, M., Batniji, R., Cohen, A., Gureje, O., Mahoney, J., & Underhill, C. (2007). Barriers to the improvement of mental health services in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet, 370(9593), 1164-1174.

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