Psychology

Developmental Psychology

Text: Human Development: A Cultural Approach

First Edition, 2012 ISBN-13: 9780205595266

Author(s): Jeffrey Jensen Arnett

Publisher: Pearson

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. What portion of the United States’ population will increase from 16 to 30 percent by 20507

a. African American

b. Anglo American

c. Asian American

d. Latino American

2. What percent of children in developing countries are enrolled in secondary education?

a. 30

b. 50

c. 70

d. 90

3. According to Dharmashastras, the sacred law books of the Hindu religion, an individual who is 45 years old is in the __ stage.

a. apprentice

b. householder

c. forest dweller

d. renunciant

4. Ancient philosopher Solon divided lifespan into __ .

a. two 35-year segments

b. five 13 year segments

c. ten 7 -year segments

d. fifteen 5-year segments

5. The third step in the scientific method is to

a. collect data to test the hypothesis.

b. identify a question of scientific interest.

c. form a hypothesis.

d. choose a research method and a research design.

6. To prevent ethical violations, most institutions that sponsor research, such as universities and

research institutes, require a proposal for research to be approved by a(n) .

a. Eth ical Standard Board

b. I nstitutional Review Board

c. Department of Research

d. University Research Sponsorship Department

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7. Approximately how many genes comprise the human genome?

a. 10,000

b. 23,000

c. 50,000

d. 100,000

8. Each form of a gene that is contained within a chromosome is referred to as a __ .

a.

dominant gene

b.

recessive gene

c.

allele

d.

single gene

9. Which of the following have a 100 genetic similarity to each other?

a. brother and sister

b. dizygotic twins

c. cousins

d. monozygotic twins

10. At what rate are neurons produced during the embryonic period?

a. 25 per minute

b. 250 per minute

c. 250,000 per minute

d. 2 billion per minute

11. Individuals who have what disorder are more likely to develop leukemia, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, or heart disease at earlier ages than usual (in their thirties and forties)?

a. Non Sex-linked-21

b. Down syndrome

c. Edward’s syndrome

d. intellectual disability

12. __ is the most common cause of infertility in women.

a. Alcohol

b. Stress

c. Age

d. Smoking

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13. For first births, what is the average length of labor?

a. 6 hours

b. 12 hours

c. 24 hours

d. 36 hours

14. __ describes when the fetus’s head appears at the outer opening of the vagina.

a. Emerging

b. Turtling

c. Crowning

d. Exiting

15. What is a strategy that can be used in latent labor if failure to progress occurs?

a. sitti ng

b. walking

c. labor massage

d. active stretching

16. How long will it take before the pieces of the skull grow together and the fontanels disappear?

a. 6 months

b. 12 months

c. 18 months

d. 24 months

17. Deprivation of oxygen is referred to as __ .

a. brain damage

b. anoxia

c. neonatal lung immaturity

d. jaundice

18. On which neonatal assessment scale is the infant assessed on 27 items and receives an overall rating of worrisome, normal or superior?

a. Apgar scale

b. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

c. Wechsler Infant Intelligent Scale

d. Stanford-Binet Scale

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19. Soon after birth an infant will root for a nipple and begin to suckle. How long after birth is this likely to occur?

a. 30 minutes

b. 60 minutes

c. 90 minutes

d. 120 minutes

20. Supported by research, UNICEF and the World Health Organization have begun a campaign to

a. promote breast-feeding

b. improve the nutritional value of milk-based formula

c. seek political asylum for those who are of childbearing age

d. encourage the use of rice as a substitute for breast milk

2l. Which of the following describes a head to tail progression of growth?

a. proximodistal principle

b. cephalocaudal principle

c. thoracictorso principle

d. phalange-metacarpal principle

22. Which of the following are signs of teething?

a. increases in hunger and appetite

b. limited mobility and irritability

c. saliva production, drooling, and biting

d. frequent naps and a higher rate of nocturnal awakenings

23. The key to depth perception is __ , the ability to combine the images of each eye into one image.

a. retinal disparity

b. myopic vision

c. monocular vision

d. binocular vision

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24. __ is when new information is altered to fit an existing scheme, whereas __ is when a scheme is changed to adapt to new information.

a. Accommodation; assimilation

b. Assimilation; accommodation

c. Retrieval; encoding

d. Encoding; retrieval

25. __ is our awareness that objects continue to exist even when we are not in direct sensory or motor contact with them.

a. A not B error

b. Object permanence

c. Egocentrism

d. Accommodation

26. What is joint attention?

a. when two adults pay attention to an infant

b. when several infants look at the same stimulus

c. when an infant pays attention to what others are attending to

d. when an infant pays attention to another infant

27. __ is comprised of personal attri butes such as irritabi I itv, soothabi I ity, emotional reactivity, and sociabi I ity.

a. Attachment

b. Temperament

c. I ntell igence quotient

d. Developmental quotient

28. What babies in the Thomas and Chess study were at high risk for problems in children including aggressive behavior, anxiety and social withdrawal?

a. easy

b. d ifficu It

c. slow-to-warm-up

d. unengaged

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29. Protein deficiency not only limits the growth of children in developing countries, but also makes them vulnerable to

a. anorexia and food addictions

b. disease and early death

c. low intell igence and behavior disorders

d. autism spectrum disorder and Asperger’s syndrome

30. Perhaps the most crucial micronutrient deficiency worldwide is __ .

a.

vitamin C

b.

fl uoride

c.

iodine

d.

folic acid

31. In many traditional cultures, when a mother becomes pregnant with another child the toddler who is accustomed to sleeping with her may __ .

a. continue to sleep with their mother but be placed at the foot of the bed

b. continue to sleep with their mother until the birth of their sibling

c. be ousted from her bed to sleep with siblings or father

d. be ousted from her bed to sleep with grandmother and grandfather

32. At what age do children show a definite handedness preference during self-feeding?

a. 24 months

b. 18 months

c. 12 months

d. 6 months

33. The ability to repeat actions observed at an earlier time is __ .

a. secondary circular reactions

b. object permanence

c. action memory

d. deferred imitation

34. Who was the psychologist who first began examining cognitive development within a cultural emphasis?

a. Jean Piaget

b. Lev Vygotsky

c. B. F. Skinner

d. R. J. Sternberg

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35. Barbara Rogoff extended Vygotsky’s theory. She discussed the teaching interaction between two people as they participate in a culturally valued activity. What did she call this concept?

a. scaffolding

b. cultural sensitivity

c. zone of proximal development

d. guided participation

36. Humans can produce a much wider range of sounds than other primates because the larynx is located lower in the throat. As a result, humans have a large sound-chamber knows as the

a. vocal folds

b. sublarynx

c. pharynx

d. voice box

37. During childhood, boys are slightly __ than girls.

a. shorter and lighter

b. taller and heavier

c. fatter and smaller

d. more sympathetic and sensitive

38. How many Leeth does the average 3-year-old have?

a. 12

b. 20

c. 32

d. 40

39. Increase in brain size and weight during early childhood is due to __ ?

a. cerebral spinal fluid

b. the increase in blood volume

c. the number of neurons

d. dendritic connections and myelination

40. __ is the inability to remember anything prior to age 2.

a. Infantile amnesia

b. Childhood disease

c. Toddler amnesia

d. Baby amnesia

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41. Iron deficiency is also known as __ .

a. kwash iorkor

b. anemia

c. osteoporosis

d. marasmus

42. According to Piaget, children from the ages of 2 to 7 are in the __ stage of cognitive development.

a. sensorimotor

b. preoperational

c. concrete operations

d. formal operations

43. Preoperational children lack the ability to comprehend that objects can be simultaneously part of more than one group. Piaget referred to this as a lack of a capacity for __ .

a. transference

b. sorting

c. configuring

d. classification

44. __ is (are) a gender-based cognitive structure for organizing and processing information.

a. Gender schemas

b. Gender awareness

c. Gender self

d. Gender knowledge

45. In middle childhood physical growth continues at a slow but steady pace. How many pounds per year does the average child gain in weight during this time?

a. 2 to 4 pounds

b. 5 to 7 pounds

c. 7 to 9 pounds

d. 10 to 12 pounds

46. When are children less vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition?

a. infancy

b. early childhood

c. middle childhood

d. adolescence

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47. In a longitudinal study that followed a sample of American children from age 4 to 11, TV-watching predicted gains in __ .

a. body fat

b. academic scores

c. cognitive ability

d. socioemotional maturity

48. What is the most common cause of injury in middle childhood?

a. sports-related injuries

b. accidental poisoning

c. bicycle accidents

d. automobile accidents

49. According to Piaget, the advances of concrete operations are evident in new abilities for per forming tasks of __ .

a. the development of motor skills and hand-eye coordination

b. egocentrism, animism, and language development

c. conservation, classification, and seriation

d. hypothetical, deductive reasoning, and hypothesis testing

50. __ is the ability to sort objects or events that share common characteristics into the same class.

a. Decenteri ng

b. Reversibility

c. Classification

d. Seriation

51. What percentage of children have ADHD?

a.

3-7

b.

10-14

c.

17-21

d.

24-28

52. Who was the individual who first coined the term “self-esteem?”

a. Eric Erikson

b. Jean Piaget

c. William James

d. Sigmund Freud

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53. The site of chemical events triggering puberty, the hypothalamus is __ .

a. a bean-sized structure located in the lower part of the brain

b. an area of the cerebral cortex that is located at the anterior end

c. a region of the brai n that is located toward the lower-back of the sku II

d. a bundle of nerve fibers that connect the right and left cerebral hemispheres

54. According to the text, how many sperm are in the typical ejaculation?

a. 10,000 to 20,000

b. 500,000 to 2 million

c. 100 million to 300 million

d. 800 million to 1 billion

55. Pubic hair and genital development began earlier for __ boys than __ boys.

a. White; African American

b. African American; White

c. Asian American; Hispanic American

d. Hispanic American; Asian American

56. What do critics call female circumcision?

a. barbaric

b. torturous

c. hymen intrusion

d. female genital mutilation

57. Jean Piaget used the __ to illustrate and measure children’s and adolescent’s entrance into hypothetica I-ded uctive reason i ng.

a. pendulum problem

b. low of conservation task

c. visual cl iff

d. three mountains task

58. A(n) __ is holding the belief of one’s uniqueness of personal experiences and personal destiny, whereas a(n) __ is an exaggerated image of a highly attentive audience for the adolescent’s appearance and his or her behavior.

a. personal fable; imaginary audience

b. imaginary audience; personal fable

c. metacognition; egocentrism

d. egocentrism; metacognition

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59. Which of the following best describes Vygotsky’s concepts of scaffolding?

a. the belief in the uniqueness of their personal experiences and their personal

destiny

b. the capacity to think about thinking

c. the difference between skills or tasks that adolescents can accomplish alone

d. the degree of assistance provided to the adolescent in the zone of proximal development

60. During adolescence, gender intensification is often considerably stronger in __ .

a. traditional cultures than in the West

b. Western cultures than in traditional cultures

c. developed nations than in industrialized nations

d. industrialized nations than in developed nations

6l. The age of __ is an age when people explore various possibilities in love and work as they move toward making enduring choices.

a. instability

b. feeling in-between

c. possibilities

d. identity explorations

62. The time period of emerging adulthood is more likely to be seen in which of the following countries?

a. Afghanistan, Chad, and Ethiopia

b. the United States, Australia, and Japan

c. South Africa, Papa New Guinea, and Cambodia

d. Zimbabwe, Liberia, and Brazil

63. According to Gisela Labouvie-Vief, cognitive development in emerging adulthood is distinguished from adolescent thinking by __ .

a. the better coordination of sensory input with motor skills

b. the disappearance of egocentric thought and animism

c. a greater recognition and incorporation of practical limitations to logical thinking

d. a greater use of hypothetical and inductive reasoning for concrete problems

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64. __ involves a growing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and two opposing strategies or points of view may each have merit.

a. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning

b. Egocentric thought

c. Hypothesis testi ng

d. Dialectical thought

65. Individuals who possess relative thought __ .

a. are able to perform mental operations on tangi ble problems and lack abstract thought

b. view the world in terms of right or wrong and black or white

c. are limited to one perspective, and interview situations is only having one outcome

d. are able to recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view

66. In Erik Erikson’s theory of development, each stage of life has a central crisis, and in adolescence the crisis is

a. integrity versus despair

b. identity versus identity confusion

c. trust versus mistrust

d. autonomy versus shame and doubt

67. Eri k Eri kson’s term

is what James Marcia has termed

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a. identity crisis; exploration

b. exploration; identity crisis

c. diffusion; foreclosure

d. foreclosure; diffusion

68. __ is the approach that involves associating only with members of one’s own ethnic group and rejecting the ways of the majority culture, whereas __ involves developing a dual identity, one based in the ethnic group of origin and one based in the majority culture.

a. Marginality; assimilation

b. Assimilation; marginality

c. Separation; bicu Ituralism

d. Biculturalism; separation

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69. What do young Argentines view as the most important criterion that signals adulthood?

a. completing military service

b. supporting a family financially

c. being able to support their parents financially

d. emotional self-control

70. Which of the following personal characteristics is highly prized in collective cultures?

a. interdependence

b. independence

c. self-promotion

d. assertiveness

71. During young adulthood what age-related change occurs to the heart muscle?

a. It becomes more rigid.

b. nothing

c. It becomes stronger, which aids in endurance training.

d. It becomes more elastic, aiding in oxygen delivery to muscles during intense exercise.

72. What were the children with exceptionally high IOs (140 or higher) called who participated in Louis Termin’s study that followed them into adulthood?

a. Lifers

b. Geniuses

c. Geeks

d. Termites

73. Among Chinese adults, one is considered highly intelligent if he or she possesses __ .

a. high levels of humility, self-knowledge, and freedom from conventional standards of judgment

b. high school and college degrees, and a high-paying corporate job

c. high analytical intelligence, low practical intelligence, and a moderate level of creative intell igence

d. low analytical intelligence, but measures high on interpersonal and body-ki nesthetic i ntell igences

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74. Dendritic connections between neurons are pared down through synaptic __ .

a. pruning

b. cutting

c. rooting

d. underregulation

75. From the triangular theory of love, intimacy is best described as __ .

a. the feelings of closeness and emotional attachment

b. the pledge to love someone over a lengthy period of time

c. a physical attraction and sexual desire for another person

d. a psychological attraction for another based upon the physical characteristics

76. What type of love combines intimacy and commitment, but without passion? This type of love also applies to unusually close friendships as well as close family relationships.

a. romantic love

b. companionate love

c. fatuous love

d. consummate love

77. What continues to increase in prevalence partly due to a biological tendency toward increasing body fat and losing muscle mass in middle adulthood?

a. obesity

b. joint problems

c. athletic injuries

d. hair loss

78. During __ vision and hearing both decline, although the decline is greater for __ .

a. young adulthood; vision

b. young adulthood; hearing

c. middle age; vision

d. middle age; hearing

79. The tiny hairs in the inner ear that transmit sounds to the brain and make it possible for an individual to hear are known as

a. cilia

b. malleus

c. eardrum

d. incus

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80. Which of the following American ethnic groups report the highest rate of hot flashes as a result of menopause?

a. women of African descent

b. women of Asian descent

c. women of European descent

d. women of South American descent

8l. A person’s vocabulary, cultural information stored in long-term memory, and logical reasoning abilities are examples of __ .

a. fluid intelligence

b. crystallized intelligence

c. cognitive overload

d. CPU speed

82. __ is knowledge and experience in a specific domain.

a. Accommodation

b. Assimilation

c. Narcissism

d. Expertise

83. In terms of memory, what differences are there between young and middle adulthood?

a. considerable differences with middle adults performing significantly worse

than young adults

b. very little differences between young and middle adults

c. slight differences in which middle adults outperform young adults

d. considerable differences with middle adults performing better than young adults

84. According to Sylvia Ann Hewlett (2003), what percentage of male business executives earning $100,000 or more per year are childless?

a. 9

b. 19

c. 29

d. 39

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85. The stage of late adulthood begins at age __ .

a. 55

b. 60

c. 65

d. 70

86. A developmental psychologist and demographer would describe an individual who is 85 years or older as __ .

a. young-old

b. old-old

c. oldest-old

d. older-old

87. Around the world, about how much longer will women at age 65 live longer than men?

a. 5 add itional years

b. 10 add itional years

c. 15 additional years

d. 20 additional years

88. Which of the following is the definition of wisdom?

a. expertise in the conduct and meaning of life

b. an IQ score of 130 or greater

c. the mental process of knowing, such as awareness and perception

d. the growth of neurological pathways in the brain

89. Which of the following individuals was an anthropologist who examined how wisdom is passed from one generation to another?

a. Margaret Mead

b. G. Stanley Hall

c. Quanah Parker

d. Charles Cooley

90. According to Carstensen and her colleagues, at younger ages the goals that people have for their social relationships are:

a. knowledge-based.

b. emotions-based.

c. task-based.

d. confl ict-based.

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91. According to Carstensen’s socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults maximize their emotional well-being by becoming increasingly selective in their:

a. entertainment choices

b. physical activities

c. social contacts

d. time commitment to family

92. __ facilities have separate apartments for each person, but residents are provided with meals in a common dining area, housekeeping services, transportation for shopping

and medical appointments, and social activities and most residents are semi-independent without dementia or serious health problems.

a. Assisted living

b. Nursing home

c. Group home

d. Community home

93. __ lie in a part of the cell DNA at the end of chromosomes and are thought to be the location where cells lose their ability to replicate.

a. Telomeres

b. Free radicals

c. Antioxidants

d. Atherosclerosis

94. Fruits and vegetables that contain beta-carotene and vitamins E and C are recommended because they are high in __ .

a.

antioxidants

b.

anticellulars

c.

antisocials

d.

anti radicals

95. In a wide variety of animal species, decreasing caloric intake by __ results in an increase in lifespan of up to 50.

a. 5 to 10

b. 10 to 30

c. 30 to 50

d. 50 to 70

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96. Which of the following is most consistent with the following description? ” __ care aims to address not just medical issues but the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of dying persons and their families.”

a. Nursing home

b. Home

c. Hospice

d. Hospital

97. Which of the following best describes active euthanasia?

a. ceasing medical interventions that would prolong a person’s life

b. not just ceasing treatment but also taking steps to hasten death

c. voluntarily taking steps that might place one’s life in jeopardy

d. against a person’s wishes, actions may occur that place a person’s life in jeopardy

98. In a study of end-of-life care, what percentage of physicians overseeing a patient’s care knew that the patient had an advance directive?

a. less than 90

b. less than 70

c. less than 50

d. less than 30

99. When do most children understand that death is permanent?

a. infancy

b. early childhood

c. middle childhood

d. adolescence

100. A(n) __ occurs for most during late adulthood when he or she thinks about the life they have I ived and come to an acceptance of it, both the lows and the highs.

a. I ife review

b. circumstantial reflection

c. generativity analysis

d. existence synopsis

 

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