1. Professor Karney administered a psychological test measuring shyness to a large number of undergraduate students. The students also completed a lengthy questionnaire on their social life and activities, including number of friends. Professor Karney conducted a statistical analysis of the responses and found a correlation coefficient of –.80 between level of shyness and number of friends. This indicates that: A) as number of friends increases, level of shyness increases. B) as number of friends decreases, level of shyness increases. C) there is no relationship between level of shyness and number of friends. D) a cause-and-effect relationship exists between shyness and number of friends.
2. According to Psych For Your Life: Successful Study Techniques, which of the following studying strategies should you AVOID? A) Using flashcards. B) Taking notes on your laptop. C) Studying while multitasking. D) Taking notes by hand.
3. Who among the following individuals was NOT a key scientist in the development of behaviorism? A) Sigmund Freud B) Ivan Pavlov C) John B. Watson D) B. F. Skinner
4. Sigmund Freud’s school of thought, called _____, emphasized the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality. A) structuralism B) functionalism C) psychoanalysis D) behaviorism
5. While Freud emphasized _____, Rogers emphasized _____. A) unconscious conflicts; conscious experiences B) unconscious conflicts; overt, measurable behavior C) development; sexuality D) favorable mental health; mental illness
TH13 Chapters 1-3
6. When thinking like a scientist, it is important to: A) engage in critical thinking. B) utilize a costs-benefits analysis. C) identify unconscious motivations. D) avoid speculating about the truth.
7. Which of the following individuals can prescribe medications? A) Noah, who is a counseling psychologist B) Sara, who has a doctorate in school psychology C) Roman, who is a psychiatrist D) Lin, who is an educational psychologist
8. The second step of the scientific method is to: A) analyze the data to arrive at conclusions. B) formulate a specific question that can be tested. C) report the results. D) design a study and collect relevant data.
9. Professor Wallace studied over 3,000 elderly individuals for a decade and found a statistically significant relationship between survival rate and number of close friends. Specifically, he found that elderly individuals with few close friends had a much higher death rate. To say that the results of his study are “statistically significant” means that: A) the finding has great practical value and significance. B) there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the two variables. C) the finding does not have to be replicated to be accepted by the scientific
community. D) the results are unlikely to have occurred by chance.
10. Dr. Ginsburg wants to study possible gender differences in the willingness of young children to engage in risky behaviors. To gather data, Ginsburg and a co-researcher carefully observe the willingness of boys and girls to try risky behaviors at a local zoo, such as petting a burro or feeding different animals. Dr. Ginsburg is using _____ to gather data. A) naturalistic observation B) a survey C) the case study method D) a representative sample
11. Dr. Dalpiez conducts research with mice, pigs, and chimpanzees. Dr. Dalpiez’s specialization is in _____ psychology. A) clinical B) experimental C) comparative D) educational
12. Mary Whiton Calkins: A) founded the first psychology laboratory in America at Yale University. B) studied with Sigmund Freud and became the first female psychoanalyst in the
United States. C) is best known for her pioneering research on comparative psychology and her book
The Animal Mind. D) conducted research on personality, dreams, and memory, and became the first
woman president of the American Psychological Association.
13. Psychologists who take the evolutionary perspective assume that psychological processes are: A) subject to the principles of natural selection. B) unconscious. C) overt and observable. D) dynamic and ever changing.
14. Evidence that is the result of observation, measurement, and experimentation is referred to as _____ evidence. A) empirical B) pseudoscientific C) operational D) dependent
15. A collectivistic culture is one in which: A) individual achievements are highly valued. B) a person’s social behavior is influenced more by individual preference than cultural
values and norms. C) a person’s individual preferences and goals are considered to be more important
than the requirements and goals of his or her social group. D) great importance is placed on following established tradition and customs.
16. The _____ functions as the main link between the nervous system and the endocrine system. A) adrenal medulla B) adrenal cortex C) amygdala D) hypothalamus
17. Lydia experiences a rush of euphoria after her daily five-mile run. This sensation is known as: A) neurogenesis. B) the runner’s high. C) the synaptic rush. D) the split-brain high.
18. According to Pereira’s study on exercise and neurogenesis, discussed in Psych for Your Life: Maximizing Your Brain’s Potential,: A) experience has minimal effect on brain functions or structures. B) exercising regularly decreases the release of endorphins in the brain. C) while exercise promotes the growth of new neurons in the brains of mammals,
findings are mixed in humans. D) exercise promotes the growth of new neurons in the human brain, just as it does in
19. Messages from other neurons or specialized cells and sensory receptors are typically: A) collected by the synaptic vesicles. B) relayed by glial cells to the correct node of Ranvier. C) received by the dendrites. D) received by the axon terminals.
20. The _____ lobe primarily control’s a person’s ability to plan, initiate, and carry out voluntary movements and actions. A) frontal B) occipital C) parietal D) temporal
21. _____ is the branch of science that is concerned with the study of the nervous system, especially the brain. A) Plasticity B) Neuroscience C) Clinical psychiatry D) Developmental psychology
22. Psychologist and neuroscientist Roger Sperry is BEST known for: A) his efforts to debunk the pseudoscientific claims of phrenology. B) the discovery of neurogenesis in the adult human brain. C) his studies on split-brain patients. D) identifying the specific brain areas involved in different forms of aphasia.
23. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are manufactured by the _____ gland(s) in the _____ system. A) adrenal; endocrine B) pineal; endocrine C) thyroid; limbic D) pituitary; limbic
24. Tom is a split-brain patient seated in front of a screen. As he focuses on the middle of the screen, the image of an apple is briefly flashed on the LEFT side of the screen. Tom will: A) be able to verbally name the object. B) be able to use his right hand to reach under the screen and pick up the correct
object. C) verbally deny that any image appeared on the screen. D) probably have an epileptic seizure.
25. Nicotine is classified as a(n): A) endorphin. B) SSRI. C) agonist. D) antagonist.
26. Petro is unable to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language because of brain damage. Petro suffers from: A) Parkinson’s disease. B) Alzheimer’s disease. C) the after effects of the split-brain operation. D) aphasia.
27. How many neurons are there in the human brain? A) 50 million B) 50 billion C) 10 billion D) 100 billion
28. The brainstem is made up of the _____ and the _____. A) forebrain; midbrain B) cerebellum; medulla C) reticular formation; pons D) midbrain; hindbrain
29. Reuptake occurs: A) when the brain shifts functions from damaged areas to undamaged areas. B) when sodium ion and potassium ion channels open. C) in the small gaps in the axon called the nodes of Ranvier. D) when neurotransmitter molecules are reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron.
30. According to the box “Critical Thinking: “His” and “Her” Brains?”, which of the following is FALSE? A) Men’s brains tend to be much smaller than women’s brains. B) Women and men have different proportions of gray to white matter in their brains. C) In general, the male brain is more asymmetrical and functions are more lateralized
than in the female brain. D) Men’s brains tend to be larger than women’s brains.
31. The box Focus on Neuroscience: Vision, Experience, and the Brain describes the visual experience of Mike May, who regained partial sight in one eye after 40 years of blindness. Mike: A) was only able to perceive new faces and objects. B) had well-developed motion perception. C) could distinguish male from female faces. D) had no color perception.
32. The receptor cells for vision are sensitive to what kind of stimulus? A) light B) heat C) vibration D) tactile
33. When you taste a sour lemon, your taste receptors send messages to your: A) olfactory cortex. B) amygdala. C) thalamus. D) frontal lobes.
34. The optic disk produces: A) color vision. B) night vision. C) the blind spot. D) proprioception.
35. Jack is a fervent believer in the idea that ancient astronauts colonized the Earth. After seeing an exhibit of moon rocks, Jack became convinced that one rock had traces of ancient hieroglyphics carved on its side and that another showed a crude diagram of a spaceship. The MOST likely explanation for Jack’s conclusion is his: A) use of positive self-talk. B) perceptual set. C) use of perceptual abilities such as aerial perspective and motion parallax. D) extrasensory abilities.
36. When Isabel visited the children’s zoo, she heard squeals coming from the baby pigs and loud grunts from the adult pigs. Her perception of the high-pitched squeals can be explained by the _____ theory of hearing, and her perception of the low-pitched grunts can be explained by the _____ theory of hearing. A) place; frequency B) frequency; place C) opponent process; trichromatic D) trichromatic; opponent process
37. Research shows that repeated exposure to a particular stimulus leads to increased liking for that stimulus. This is referred to as: A) the mere exposure effect. B) psychokinesis. C) perceptual constancy. D) sensory adaptation.
38. Which perceptual illusions involve size constancy? A) the moon illusion and the Shepard Tables illusion B) the Müller-Lyer illusion and the impossible figure illusion C) the moon illusion and the Müller-Lyer illusion D) the carpentered-world illusion and the Shepard Tables illusion
39. Look at the following two examples:
(1) XXXXXXXXX OOOOOOOOO (2) ZWX ZQX YZV QWX ZWQ
You tend to perceive the elements in the first example as two units because of the law of _____. You tend to perceive the elements in the second example as five units because of the law of _____. A) proximity; closure B) figure/ground; closure C) closure; good continuation D) similarity; proximity
40. Cones are concentrated in the _____ and specialized for _____. A) center of the retina; distance vision and feature detection B) fovea; color vision and visual acuity C) fovea; peripheral vision and vision in low-light conditions D) periphery of the retina; color vision and visual acuity
41. Amy, an accomplished gymnast, has just learned how to do a cartwheel on the balance beam. Which two senses are especially involved in this accomplishment? A) sense of equilibrium and the vestibular sense B) proprioception and the kinesthetic sense C) kinesthetic sense and vestibular sense D) audition and vision
42. The “fallacy of positive instances” refers to the: A) ability to predict the future. B) tendency to misjudge the probability of an event occurring simply by chance. C) tendency to seek the simplest possible explanation for an unusual event. D) tendency to remember events that seem to confirm our beliefs and forget the events
that contradict our beliefs.
43. _____, a Gestalt psychologist, was the first person to study the phenomenon of induced motion. A) Max Wertheimer B) Roger Shepard C) Karl Duncker D) Johann Müller-Lyer
44. As you walk into your grandmother’s home, you catch the whiff of your favorite peanut butter cookies. The process by which the odor of cookies is converted into neural signals that your brain can interpret as the smell of cookies is called: A) transduction. B) sensory adaptation. C) proprioception D) neuroplasticity.
45. You can easily distinguish between a tuna fish salad sandwich and a chicken salad sandwich by their smell because airborne molecules from tuna salad and chicken salad: A) stimulate two different patterns of odor receptors in the nasal cavity. B) stimulate different sensory thresholds. C) each stimulates a different odor receptor in the nasal cavity. D) generate neural impulses along two different sensory pathways.