Psychology

Personality Chapter

Someone insults you and you spend the next two hours imagining the things you could have (or should have) said to humiliate them. According to Freud, you are engaging in free association.

Select one:

True

False

The BEST kind of personality test is one that is _______.

Select one:

a. reliable, but not necessarily valid

b. valid, but not necessarily reliable

c. neither reliable nor valid

d. both valid and reliable

Jenny is 15 years old. She is capable of mature sexuality, is able to postpone gratification, and handle responsibility. According to Freud, she is in the phallic stage.

Select one:

True

False

Johnny is 8 years old. He likes to play with other little boys, but has no interest in playing with little girls. According to Freud, he is in the latency stage.

Select one:

True

False

According to Hippocrates, if my temper is out of control, I need to check the balance of my green bile.

Select one:

True

False

According to Hippocrates, too much phlegm may make me sluggish and apathetic.

Select one:

True

False

Adler called the individual’s attempts to overcome physical weaknesses ________.

Select one:

a. Reciprocity

b. Fictional finalism

c. Compensation

d. Reaction formation

The Rorschach personality test relies on a subject telling stories based on cards depicting human figures in various poses?

Select one:

True

False

Freud believed that personality is formed around ________ structures.

Select one:

a. five

b. two

c. three

d. four

“Relative” is one of the three basic characteristics of personality as presented in your lecture notes.

Select one:

True

False

Without using the ego, one way the id can obtain gratification is through the reality principle.

Select one:

True

False

For Freud, the seething cauldron of unconscious urges and desires continuously seeking expression is the ego.

Select one:

True

False

For both Bandura and Rotter, a person’s expectancies become a critical part of his or her ________.

Select one:

a. explanatory style

b. self-actualizing tendency

c. ideal self

d. persona

For Horney, self-actualization is a stronger motivating force than is sex

Select one:

True

False

According to your text, personality is stable.

Select one:

True

False

Adler felt that some people become so fixated on their feelings of inadequacy that they develop ________.

Select one:

a. neurotic trends

b. an archetype

c. a fixation

d. an inferiority complex

According to Freud, a girl’s sexual attachment to her father and jealousy of her mother is called ________.

Select one:

a. the Electra complex

b. the Oedipus complex

c. countertransference

d. transference

For Freud, the term “sexual instinct” refers to ________.

Select one:

a. erotic sexuality

b. the personal unconscious

c. any form of pleasure

d. childhood experiences

According to Jung, people who base their actions on their perceptions, senses, and intuition are ________.

Select one:

a. introverts

b. irrational individuals

c. extraverts

d. rational individuals

Terry Francis, a world famous psychologist, argues that behavior is the end product of a variety of some conscious and mostly unconscious forces interacting within a person’s mind. Terry Francis is most likely a behavioral psychologist

Select one:

True

False

Collective memories of experiences people have had in common since prehistoric times, such as mothers, heroes, or villains are called ________ by Carl Jung

Select one:

a. archetypes

b. personas

c. parasymbols

d. animas

The best known and most influential psychodynamic theorist is ________.

Select one:

a. Watson

b. Maslow

c. Skinner

d. Freud

According to Jung, our repressed thoughts, undeveloped ideas, and forgotten experiences are contained in the collective unconscious.

Select one:

True

False

According to Jung, people who regulate actions by thinking and feeling are ________.

Select one:

a. irrational individuals

b. introverts

c. extraverts

d. rational individuals

According to Jung, a person who usually focuses on his or her own thoughts and feelings is a(n) introvert.

Select one:

True

False

According to Hippocrates, black bile could be responsible for a person’s depression.

Select one:

True

False

When an individual’s self-concept is closely matched with his or her inborn capacities, then that person is likely to become what Rogers calls a(n) ________ person.

Select one:

a. fully functioning

b. fully rational

c. actualizing

d. harmoniously integrated

Horney believed that sexual factors are the most important factors shaping personality.

Select one:

True

False

According to William Seldon, the lactomorphic body type signals an artistic, introverted temperament.

Select one:

True

False

Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt corresponds approximately with Freud’s ________ stage.

Select one:

a. oral

b. genital

c. genital

d. phallic

Erik is a newborn. According to Erikson, his main task will be to develop a sense of autonomy.

Select one:

True

False

Jack is 24 years old. His major task, according to Erikson, is to develop a sense of identity.

Select one:

True

False

According to William Seldon, the endomorphic body type is likely to display a relaxed and sociable demeanor

Select one:

True

False

In Rogers’s theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of that person’s behavior is called ________.

Select one:

a. Psychological congruence

b. Self-actualization

c. Unconditional positive regard

d. Psychosynthesis

According to Rogers, the primary goal of life is to ________.

Select one:

a. understand one’s personal ancestral history

b. harmoniously unify the id, ego, and superego

c. successfully overcome the developmental challenges

d. fulfill one’s inborn capacities and potentialities

Gerald takes great pride in his sexual prowess and treats women with contempt. Yet, he feels worthless and has low self-esteem. In Freud’s view, he is probably fixated in the oral stage.

Select one:

True

False

The accuracy and usefulness of projective tests depends largely on ________.

Select one:

a. the age of the client

b. the type of disorder being diagnosed

c. whether the client likes taking tests

d. the skill of the examiner

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