Psychology

9. A reinforcer:

(a) only has its reinforcing qualities in its originally-used context (b) does not always lead to satisfaction

(c) decreases the frequency of the operant response (d) possesses transsituationality

10. Which of the following could occur within a participant during punishment training?

(a) aggression

(b) conditioned fear

(c) avoidance of the situation (d) all of the above

11. Dr. Smith is trying to teach Billy to WANT to do his homework, because of the personal satisfaction that homework completion will bring to Billy. Dr. Smith is essentially trying to enhance Billy’s:

(a) extrinsic motivation (b) intrinsic motivation (c) latent learning

(d) biofeedback ability

12. A reward can interfere with a punisher when: (page 138)

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(a) reward and punishment fail to arouse approach-avoidance conflict (b) the punishment is not consistent

(c) the punishing event becomes a secondary positive reinforcer (d) none of the above- rewards never interfere with punishment

13. After Susie runs away from her mother and into the street, she is almost hit by a passing car. Following this event, Susie’s mother punishes her for her behavior. Research shows that:

(a) Susie might continue to misbehave, in an even worse manner (b) the punishment might have no effect on Susie

(c) both a and b

(d) neither a nor b

14. Self-Injurious Behavior tends to be treated with:

(a) reinforcement (b) punishment

(c) aversion therapy

(d) learned helplessness

15. Skinner’s stance of the use of punishment in treating Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB) was that:

(a) it should not be done because it is immoral

(b) it should not be done because it only reinforces the punisher (c) it should be done if it is brief, harmless, and contingent on SIB

(d) it should be done in an intense and painful way, in order to be effective in eliminating the SIB

16. Whenever Billy cries at the supermarket, his mom and dad buy him a candy bar, and find that with each trip to the store, Billy cries more and more. What is happening?

(a) Billy’s responses are generalizing

(b) negative reinforcement- Billy has learned that when he cries at the store, he gets a candy bar

(c) masochistic behavior

(d) none of the above- there is no relation between the candy bar and Billy’s behavior

17. Ernie’s car has an automatic transmission with the gear shift behind the steering wheel. Earlier today, however, he drove his mom’s car, which has its automatic transmission gear shift on the floor of the car. As he tried to drive his mom’s car out of her driveway, he reached for the gear shift behind the steering wheel, although it wasn’t there. Ernie’s behavior in this situation is illustrative of:

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(a) retroactive interference (b) proactive interference (c) anchoring

(d) none of the above

18. As a result of taking this test today, you are having a difficult time recalling the material you studied yesterday, for a test in tomorrow’s calculus class. The memory deficit described here illustrates:

(a) retroactive interference (b) proactive interference (c) anchoring

(d) remote associations

19. Response learning can be enhanced by:

(a) using meaningful response items

(b) using nonmeaningful response items (c) the experimenter being vague

(d) responses having few associations

20. Which of the following can influence the degree to which items in a paired- associate learning task become connected to one another?

(a) prior knowledge

(b) preexisting associations Ic) cognitive elaboration (d) all of the above

21. Dr. Smith gives his experimental subjects the words BOY and SKY to learn in a paired associate task. After presenting subjects with these two words, subjects must generate a sentence that uses both of the words. Dr. Smith’s methodology is studying the effect of which of the following processes on paired-associate learning?

(a) free recall

(b) cognitive elaboration (c) memorization

(d) direction of associations

22. When presented with the stimulus word “BASKET” and asked for a response, Jody replies “BALL:’This response is typical of research looking into which aspect of paired associate learning?

(a) S-R mapping

(b) cognitive elaboration

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(c) prior knowledge

(d) direction of associations

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23. Enhanced recall for information presented in an earlier (as opposed to later) portion of a word list is referred to as:

(a) the recency effect (b) the primacy effect (c) anchoring

(d) paired-associate learning

24. The existence of long-term memory can be said to be supported by the occur- rence of:

(a) the recency effect (b) the primacy effect (c) anchoring

(d) paired-associate learning

25. The idea that words from the same semantic category can be recalled togeth- er even if they were not presented as part of the same list is the core idea underlying:

(a) categorical clustering (b) subjective organization (c) associative clustering (d) matrix recall

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Written Assignment for Unit Two

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assiqnrnents, However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words.Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course Syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. At the start of the 20th century, Edward Lee Thorndike was one of the first researchers to investigate instrumental learning. Explain the research he conducted.

2. Describe the major criticism of the use of reinforcement in learning.

3. Describe the major components of avoidance learning and the theories that offer an explanation of it.

4. Describe the work and research done by scientist Herman Ebbinghaus.

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. You are asked “Who was the first president of the United States?”To answer this question, you would most likely have to retrieve information from:

(a) short-term memory (b) semantic memory (c) episodic memory (d) procedural memory

2. You are asked “Where were you on 9/1 1 ?” To answer this question, you would most likely have to retrieve information from:

(a) short-term memory (b) semantic memory (c) episodic memory (d) procedural memory

3. The finding that certain amnesiacs have impaired episodic LTM but preserved semantic LTM (or vice-versa) suggests that:

(a) LTM is always damaged in amnesia (b) STM is always damaged in amnesia

(c) episodic and semantic LTM are distinct from one another (d) doctors don’t really understand the disease

4. This anomalous forgetting phenomenon describes when a person thinks they have come up with an original idea, only to realize later it was suggested by someone else.

(a) cryptomnesia (b) deja vu

(c) fugue reaction

(d) none of the above

5. Which of the following is NOT known to produce memory loss?

(a) electroconvulsive therapy

(b) an unusual word appearing in the middle of a list of other words (c) the inducing of frustration in infants

(d) none of the above

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6. The answer to which of the following questions would most likely involve acti- vation of the mechanism(s) behind implicit memory?

(a) “When did you graduate from high school?” (b) “When is your birthday?”

(c) “How do you drive a stick shift vehicle?” (d) “Where were you on 9/11?”

7. Implicit Memory: Explicit Memory as Unconscious:

(a) Inactive (b) Indirect (c) Conscious (d) Retention

8. A test that makes direct reference to a prior episode is most likely assessing:

(a) incidental memory (b) implicit memory (c) working memory (d) explicit memory

9. Mary’s knowledge of how to drive a car is most likely originating from her:

(a) explicit memory

(b) procedural memory (c) episodic memory (d) semantic memory

10. Which of the following features has been identified as being a critical charac- teristic of STM?

(a) unlimited capacity

(b) lack of potential for forgetting (c) stores items verbally

(d) acoustic encoding

11. According to the word-length-effect, which of the following words has the best chance of being recalled correctly?

(a) INCARCERATION (b) THOUGHTFULNESS (c) TIRE

(d) MOUNTAINS

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12. The ability to recall, in order of presentation, which of the following number of items from a sequence of items, as indicative of a normal adult memory span:

(a) 12 (b) 4 (c) 7 (d) 2

13. The suffix effect tends to:

(a) enhance recall of recently-presented information

(b) enhance recall of information presented 24 hours or more prior to recall (c) diminish recall of recently-presented information

(d) diminish recall of information presented 24 hours or more prior to recall

14. The impairment in patient K.F. suggests that:

(a) one needs STM to get information into LTM

(b) STM is not necessary for the transfer of information into LTM (c) LTM has a limited capacity

(d) STM actually has an unlimited capacity

15. Which is NOT listed in your text (Box 8.2) as a condition which can cause memory loss?

(a) Lyme disease

(b) toxic poisoning from bad shellfish (c) alcohol poisoning

(d) all of the above can cause memory loss

16. Emotional events are highly recallable because:

(a) they tend to be non-distinctive, inhibiting interference from external factors (b) they allow our attention to wander

(c) they involve unconscious, but not conscious, memory processes

(d) the bodily arousal occurring with emotions enhances memory formation

17. According to McCarthy and Warrington (1990) which of the following is NOT a purpose of short term memory?

(a) familiarity

(b) problem solving

(c) language comprehension

(d) gateway to long-term memory

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, 8. High amounts of domain-specific knowledge can lead to the development of:

(a) novice ability (b) expert ability

(c) implicit memory

(d) procedural memory

, 9. The testing effect produces the effect it does because:

(a) testing is less challenging than continued studying

(b) transfer-appropriate processing mechanisms are engaged (c) testing is not connected to studying

(d) none of the above

20. Of all of the lectures in his Introductory Economics class, Tom remembers the class about global economics best because the teacher wore all of his clothes backwards and inside-out. The teachers was seemingly trying to en- courage:

(a) maintenance rehearsal (b) the recency effect

(c) the formation of an implicit memory (d) the von Restorff effect

21. One reason why textbooks place critical terms in bold-face is due to the premises of:

(a) maintenance rehearsal (b) the recency effect

(c) the formation of an implicit memory (d) the von Restorff effect

22. The enhanced recall of distinctive items, and the impaired recall of informa- tion presented just prior to the distinctive stimuli, is referred to as:

(a) the anterograde amnesic effect (b) the retrograde amnesic effect (c) the von Restorff effect

(d) the recency effect

23. The occurrence of distinctive stimuli impairing the recall of information pre- sented after the distinctive items is referred to as:

(a) the anterograde amnesic effect (b) the retrograde amnesic effect

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(c) the von Restorff effect (d) the recency effect

24. At the beginning of yesterday’s sociology class, Dr. Smith showed highly suggestive pictures of men and women to illustrate the different forms

that pornography can take. After this 5-minute slide show, Dr. Smith gave a 45-minute lecture of pornography and modern society. However, immediately after the class ended, the students had no memory of the lecture– all they could recall were the sexually explicit photographs shown at the start of class. This impaired memory is illustrative of:

(a) the anterograde amnesic effect (b) the retrograde amnesic effect (c) the von Restorff effect

(d) the recency effect

25. The spacing effect suggests that:

(a) massed practice is better than distributed practice (b) distributed practice is better than massed practice

(c) massed and distributed practice are equal in their utility (d) none of the above

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Written Assignment for Unit Three

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course Syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. List and explain the different classifications of Amnesias.

2. Describe the early studies of short term and long term memory. What was found in these studies?

3. Explain the importance of the Brown-Peterson task and the steps involved in it.

4. Describe and list the major components of schemas.

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