Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Describe the stages of psychoanalysis.

2. Describe how Self Psychology is different from the other three types of neoanalytical theories.

3. Discuss Adler’s ideas about birth order.

PSY 525 Counseling Systems and Techniques

Unit 2 Examination

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Tim comes to the counselor because he is afraid of life. He does not trust others and therefore has difficulty establishing satisfying relationships. His Person Centered therapist, Carl, would hope that, as a result of counseling, Tim could:

a. learn assertiveness skills.

b. be more in touch with his experience. c. use fewer defense mechanisms.

d. confront his parents about conditions of worth they instilled.

2. Patty, the Person Centered counselor, tells her client Jose that she is feeling uncomfortable with the way he interacts with her. She is demonstrating:

a. congruence.

b. misjudgment.

c. countertransference. d. anxiety.

3. Person Centered therapy has been criticized because:

a. it is too positive about human beings. b. the techniques are difficult to learn.

c. it is individualistic. d. a and c

4. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapy, according to Person Centered theorists, include all EXCEPT:

a. the client and counselor are equals.

b. counselor is the expert, guiding the client on a journey to healing. c. the counselor strives to understand the client’s experience.

d. all of the above are necessary and sufficient conditions.

5. Achieving good health is a process, not a:

a. destination.

b. impossible outcome. c. fluke.

d. dream.

6. In a Person Centered model, growth of the individual depends upon:

a. creating conditions of worth.

b. accurate perceptions of others.

c. accurate perceptions of experience. d. eliminating destructive tendencies.

7. Little Stella has a friend, Shelly, who tends to punch on Stella when they play together.

Lately, Stella has been crying when she sees Shelly and tries to crawl away from her. Stella is demonstrating the operation of the:

a. self-actualization tendency. b. core conditions.

c. conditions of worth.

d. organismic valuing process.

8. If you were an ET theorist and your client was “being in the physical world”, what is the correct term for that state of being?

a. Umwelt b. Mitwelt

c. Eigenwelt d. Bigwelt

9. If you were an ET theorist and your client was “in the inner psychological world”, what is the correct term for that state of being?

a. Umwelt b. Mitwelt

c. Eigenwelt d. Bigwelt

10. In Existential theory, the ultimate concern is:

a. bankruptcy.

b. being unloved. c. death.

d. a and c

11. This type of anxiety is destructive, paralyzing and tends to be repressed:

a. Normal

b. Existential c. Neurotic

d. Psychotic

12. When a client is experiencing guilt about possibilities unfulfilled, this is called:

a. Catholic guilt.

b. existential guilt. c. Umwelt guilt.

d. normal guilt.

13. An ET counselor is more interested in the client’s experience than his/her .

a. present; past

b. present; future c. past; present

d. future; present

14. A major characteristic of the therapeutic atmosphere of Gestalt therapy is to:

a. focus solely on events of the past and disregard the experience of the here and now.

b. focus solely on the experience of the here and now and disregard what has happened in the past.

c. examine what has happened in the past as it is experienced in the here and now of therapy. d. prevent the client from gaining awareness of how past events influence how he or she

interacts in the here and now.

Please answer questions 15 – 16 based on the following paragraph:

Desi is a 35 year-old Hispanic male who moved to the U.S. from Mexico approximately 4 years ago. Desi is married to Julie, a 32 year-old Caucasian female, who is an assistant professor in the counseling psychology program of a well-known university. Desi and Julie have 3 children and the couple decided after their first child was born that Desi would care for the children due to Julie’s full-time teaching and research activities. Desi was referred to counseling by his primary care physician due to Desi’s complaint of panic attacks, nightmares, and shortness of breath. His therapist (Pat) is a practicing Gestalt therapist.

15. Pat will MOST likely assess Desi to determine:

a. the most accurate DSM-IV diagnosis.

b. whether his presenting symptoms of anxiety are due to his history of asthma. c. the career that would be most appropriate for him to pursue.

d. Desi’s current level of awareness.

16. As Desi’s therapy progresses, Pat will:

a. encourage Desi to actively explore key aspects of his sense of identity.

b. actively explore key aspects of his sense of identity using projective methods.

c. gather evidence to support his perception of Desi’s sense of identity without disclosing his findings to Desi.

d. disclose aspects of his own sense of identity with the hope that Desi will assimilate them.

17. Which of the following characteristics of Gestalt therapy contributes to its usefulness with clients from diverse populations?

a. focus on expressiveness

b. focus on understanding the person in the environment and exploration of the client’s awareness

c. the focus on self-disclosure

d. the lack of importance of content

18. This concept refers to a complete loss of self in which the individual cannot separate himself/

herself from the environment:

a. retroflection b. introjection c. confluence d. projection

19. This defense occurs when a client’s impulse is blunted or dampened (i.e. a person smiles to soften the expression of his/her anger):

a. deflection b. denial

c. avoidance d. acting out

20. The problem with theory testing research in the area of behavioral approaches is that:

a. it is difficult to test the theory separate from outcome. b. behavioral constructs are hard to operationalize.

c. behavior therapists are bad researchers. d. all of the above are true

21. Which one of the following is NOT associated with Behavior Therapy?

a. Skinner b. Adler

c. Watson d. Pavlov

22. James is awakened at night by the barking dog (Hans) who lives next door. James opens his window and yells at the dog, to no avail. James next throws one of his best shoes at the dog, who immediately stops barking and busily chews on the shoe. James’ shoe-throwing behavior has been:

a. positively reinforced. b. counterconditioned.

c. negatively reinforced.

d. James’ behavior will not change.

23. In the previous question, the dog’s behavior has been:

a. counter conditioned. b. positively reinforced. c. negatively reinforced. d. punished.

24. Susan wants her boyfriend to kiss her more often. Unfortunately, boyfriend Dan does not approach Susan physically very much. Susan begins to smile and say nice things to Dan every time he comes within six inches of her. Pretty soon, Dan is so close that he touches Susan. She smiles and says very nice things to him. Susan continues to reward Dan’s behavior when he touches her and finally one day he kisses her. She jumps for joy. What technique is she using?

a. shaping

b. negative reinforcement c. positive punishment

d. none of the above

25. Dave has a shoe phobia. It is so bad that he can’t go to work because he works construction and his boss will not allow him to come to work barefoot. Dave consults with Phil, the behavior therapist. Phil discovers that when Dave was young, his dad would beat Dave with his wingtip shoes when he did something wrong. For Dave, shoes are:

a. the conditioned response. b. the conditioned stimulus.

c. the unconditioned stimulus. d. the unconditioned response.

Written Assignment for Unit Two

Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.


All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course Syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapy, according to Person Centered therapy? What does the research tell us about these conditions?

2. Evaluate Existential Theory’s utility for clients who are of diverse backgrounds. What are its strengths and potential pitfalls?

3. Describe how you might use modeling procedures in helping a client learn a specific social skill.

PSY 525 Counseling Systems and Techniques

Unit 3 Examination

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Julie believes that she absolutely MUST be the best mother possible. According to REBT, she should instead:

a. sacradize.

b. forget about it. c. importantize.

d. practice UAO.

2. When an individual experiences an Activating event and processes it with a rational belief, she/he is likely to:

a. not feel any emotion.

b. experience discomfort disturbance. c. experience ego disturbance.

d. none of the above

3. The REBT counselor would be LEAST likely to use the following technique:

a. bibliotherapy b. reframing

c. extensive problem exploration d. b and c

4. Which of the following is most important in REBT?

a. thoughts b. feelings

c. behavior

d. motivation

5. The role of the client in REBT is:

a. patient.

b. collaborator.

c. expert on the self. d. none of the above

6. The role of the counselor in REBT is:

a. doctor. b. teacher.

c. co-facilitator. d. submissive.

7. The best client outcome in REBT involves:

a. adopting a new life philosophy. b. symptom remission.

c. better interpersonal relationships. d. changing irrational beliefs.

8. Which of the following is NOT a level of cognitive processing?

a. automatic b. conscious

c. unconscious

d. metacognitive

9. The initial roles of the therapist and client in Cognitive Therapy are MOST like:

a. co-therapists.

b. fellow travelers. c. doctor-patient. d. parent-child.

10. Collaborative Empiricism refers to the:

a. client and therapist working together to investigate the client’s presenting problem. b. warmth and genuineness that the therapist and client demonstrate to each other.

c. therapist’s position as a blank slate in the second phase of treatment. d. client’s role of a student in the first phase of treatment.

11. In CT, client resistance is seen as stemming from:

a. activated depressogenic schemata.

b. irrational beliefs toward the therapist. c. therapist beliefs.

d. problems in collaboration.

12. Arlene, the Cognitive Therapist, asks her client Sue to take some baby steps towards re-establishing her relationship with her family. Arlene is using:

a. a graded task assignment. b activity scheduling.

c. Socratic questioning. d. none of the above

13. Cognitive restructuring occurs via:

a. behavioral techniques used in Cognitive Therapy. b. cognitive techniques used in Cognitive Therapy.

c. investigation into irrational core beliefs that developed during childhood. d. both a and b

14. Stephen is in therapy with Bob, and they decide that Stephen should, over the next week, meet one new person every day. When Stephen comes to his next session, he has met only three new people. Bob asks what Stephen will do over the next week to meet seven new people. Bob is MOST likely to be a(n):

a. Gestalt therapist.

b. Interpersonal therapist.

c. Family systems therapist. d. Reality therapist.

15. According to Reality Therapy, the reason we get depressed is that:

a. we are unhappy.

b. we are unhappy with ourselves.

c. we have unsatisfied needs for fun. d. we are unhappy with our job.

16. Researchers who have investigated the efficacy of Reality Therapy have generally reported that

Reality Therapy is:

a. as effective as a placebo. b. generally effective.

c. more effective than Cognitive Therapy.

d. more effective than treatment with medication.

17. Which of the following is an example of a question that a Reality Therapist is likely to ask a client?

a. “If tonight while you are sleeping, something happened that made everything better, how would you know?”

b. “What is your earliest recollection of your mother and father?”

c. “What will happen if you continue doing what you have been doing up until now?”

d. “What has worked for you in the past to solve the problem that you are having right now?”

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