Psychology

Unit 1 Examination

33

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Considering the research findings described in the textbook, only one of the following is a true statement. Which one is true?

a. Repeating something over and over is usually the most effective way to learn it. b. Girls have a noticeable advantage over boys on verbal tasks. c. Students often study differently for different kinds of classroom assessments. d. For optimal performance, students should never feel the least bit anxious in the classroom.

2. Which one of the following is the best example of elaboration?

a. Logan copies a friend’s answers to last night’s homework assignment. b. Rosie repeats the spelling of each word several times the night before her spelling test. c. Melissa makes up stories to help her remember the various species she studies in biology. d. Sharon automatically knows how to study effectively for an upcoming history test.

3. Which one of the following is the best example of qualitative research?

a. comparing average achievement test scores for students at three different schools b. looking at school attendance records to identify potential school dropouts c. interviewing middle school students about cliques at their school d. finding out how long it takes 6-year-olds to assemble challenging picture puzzles

4. A study that tells us whether two variables are associated, but does not tell us if one variable causes or influences the other, is a(n):

a. experimental study with one or more control groups. b. experimental study without a control group. c. correlational study. d. descriptive study.

5. Experimental research requires which one of the following?

a. manipulating an aspect of the environment b. studying behavior in an actual classroom environment c. being able to predict two or more variables d. describing every variable in the study in considerable detail

Unit 1 Examination

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

6. A research study finds that students who weigh more do better in school. Which one of the following is an appropriate deduction from this information?

a. On average, students who eat more do better in school. b. Parents should feed their children as much as possible. c. There is a correlation between weight and classroom performance. d. The school cafeteria should decrease the fat content of the food it serves.

7. Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn only from an experimental study?

a. Boys are more likely to show aggressive behavior than girls. b. Drugs administered during childbirth affect a child’s early development. c. Children grow taller as they get older. d. Children’s muscular coordination improves as they grow older.

8. Mr. Jacobs wants to find out whether a new program for teaching physical education promotes students’ physical development. He gives his students a number of tests before they begin the program (pretests) and the same tests again after they have been in the program for eight months (post tests). He finds that the students’ post test scores are higher than their pretest scores and so concludes that the program is effective. What is definitely wrong with Mr. Jacobs’ conclusion?

a. Tests are not a good measure of physical development. b. There are other possible explanations for his results. c. Eight months is too short a time for such a program to have a long-term effect. d. The post tests should always be different from the pretests.

9. Most developmental theorists agree that:

a. physical development occurs in a predictable sequence, but cognitive development does not. b. developmental milestones appear in a consistent sequence for most children. c. development occurs at a smooth, constant rate throughout childhood and early adolescence; it begins to slow down in the high school years. d. cognitive development occurs in a predictable sequence, but physical development does not.

10. Which one of the following statements reflects what developmentalists mean by the term maturation?

a. developmental changes that are controlled largely by heredity b. changes that reflect increasingly appropriate social behavior c. changes related specifically to children’s emotional development d. changes related specifically to children’s physical development

Unit 1 Examination

35

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

11. A sensitive period in development can best be described as a(n):

a. approach to teaching or parenting that takes a child’s developmental level into account b. stage of development in which children display unpredictable (and often inappropriate) emotional responses c. period during children’s cognitive development in which they are highly distractible and are frequently off-task in the classroom d. age range during which environmental conditions are most likely to have an effect on a particular aspect of a child’s development

12. Which one of the following best describes our current knowledge about the brain and learning?

a. We know that the brain reaches adult levels of maturity at puberty, enabling young adolescents to think and learn as effectively as adults do. b. We know that “left-brained” individuals are, on average, more effective learners than “right-brained” individuals. c. We know that learning is often associated with the formation of new synapses or the strengthening of existing ones. d. We know that the cortexes of rapid learners are about 20% larger than the cortexes of slow learners.

13. As children grow older, many of their neurons begin to transmit messages more rapidly than they did in the early years of life thanks to:

a. myelination. b. increasing dominance of one brain hemisphere over the other. c. synaptogenesis. d. greater variety of neurotransmitters.

14. According to the textbook, which one of the following conclusions is most warranted from research on brain development?

a. Classroom experiences can affect students’ cognitive development throughout the elementary and secondary school years. b. It is essential that children begin studying basic mathematics and science before the age of seven. c. Children probably won’t master the skills essential to success in the adult world unless they begin developing those skills in the early elementary grades. d. The ability to think abstractly depends on the development of many synaptic connections during the first five years of life.

15. Which one of the following reflects class inclusion as Piaget described it?

a. realizing that things that are cars can also be vehicles b. identifying a shape as a square one day but as a triangle the next c. understanding that some behaviors that are perfectly acceptable at home are unacceptable at school d. getting cows and horses confused

Unit 1 Examination

36

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

16. Five-year-old Becky is playing with blocks, stacking them one on top of another until her towers eventually tumble and then stacking them again. Which one of the following best reflects Piaget’s view of how Becky is probably learning in this situation?

a. She is absorbing information about how the environment behaves (e.g., “objects fall”) without consciously thinking about it. b. Because she is probably still in the sensorimotor stage, she will remember what she learns about the blocks only while the blocks are still in front of her. c. She is actively thinking about and interpreting the results of her actions. d. Because she builds one tower after another, she is obviously reinforced by watching her towers tumble down.

17. Which one of the following most accurately describes the general concept of temperament?

a. an inherited predisposition to interact with one’s environment in certain ways b. the extent to which people like or dislike themselves c. the extent to which people use or don’t use their inherited intellectual potential d. the ways that individuals have learned to react to environmental stimuli as a result of their past experiences

18. Which one of the following fifth graders most clearly shows signs of healthy attachment to one or more parents or other primary caregivers?

a. Miranda seems withdrawn and frightened much of the time. b. Jeffrey is self-confident and often likes to work independently. c. Shelly has no friends and behaves aggressively toward the other girls in her class. d. Mike seems unusually preoccupied with an attractive young actress who stars in a popular television show.

19. Other things being equal, which student is most likely to have come from a home in which his or her parents exhibit an authoritative parenting style?

a. Frank is well-behaved and self-confident. b. Margaret is impulsive and disobedient. c. Patrick is selfish and unmotivated. d. Rhoda is anxious and unhappy.

20. If we extend research findings regarding effective parenting styles to the classroom, teachers would be well advised to:

a. reward good behavior and ignore inappropriate behavior. b. establish fair rules and high expectations, and provide loving support. c. insist on strict obedience, with immediate punishment for infractions. d. allow students to make their own decisions regarding how they should and should not

Unit 1 Examination

37

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

behave in the classroom. 21. Three of the following suggestions are apt to be helpful when teachers work with students and their parents. With the textbook’s discussion of parenting styles in mind, choose the strategy that is apt to be counterproductive.

a. Keep in mind that many parents from Asian cultures effectively combine elements of authoritative and authoritarian parenting. b. Acknowledge that authoritarian methods may be quite appropriate if families live in dangerous neighborhoods. c. Point out that parents who use authoritarian methods may be causing some of their children’s behavior problems. d. Keep in mind that many children do well in school despite less-than-optimal parenting styles at home.

22. Which one of the following should you definitely do if you suspect that one of your students is the victim of abuse or neglect at home?

a. Temporarily lower your expectations for the student’s academic performance until conditions at home seem to improve. b. Spend some one-on-one time with the student in an effort to get him or her to confide in you. c. Keep a close eye on the student over the next few weeks, looking for additional evidence that either supports or disconfirms your suspicions. d. Immediately report your suspicions to a school administrator or social services.

23. Three of the following teachers are socializing their students in the way that schools typically do. Which teacher is not socializing students in a typical fashion?

a. Ms. Allen insists that her students complete their independent seatwork before they go to recess. b. Ms. Bernetti has her students go to lunch by rows, letting the quietest rows go first. c. Ms. Dobson suggests that Sean bang his fist against the wall a few times whenever he gets frustrated. d. Ms. Castanza does not permit her students to talk back to her in a disrespectful fashion.

24. Three of the following tend to be fairly stable personality traits that children have to varying degrees. Which one would psychologists not characterize as a relatively stable personality trait?

a. how dependable children are in doing their work carefully and following through on assigned tasks b. how outgoing and friendly children are with their peers c. how quickly children solve math problems d. how often children have negative emotions such as anger or depression

Unit 1 Examination

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

25. Given what we know about the development of sense of self, three of the following are likely scenarios. Which scenario is not likely to occur?

a. Mike vacillates between thinking of himself as being very smart and as being extremely stupid. b. Aaron thinks that kids his age don’t like him, so he spends most of his spare time with his parents. c. Daniel knows he has many friends, but he wishes he were a better student. d. Rex knows he’s good in math and science but thinks of himself as a total klutz when it comes to sports.

Unit 2 Examination

83

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Which one of the following is the most accurate statement about group differences among students?

a. When we have knowledge about typical group differences, we have a very good idea of how individual students are likely to perform in the classroom. b. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know their gender, but not when we know their ethnic background. c. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know their ethnic background, but not when we know their gender. d. The average for two groups may be different, but variability within each group keeps us from predicting individual performance.

2. Ten-year-old Svana has recently immigrated from Iceland to the United States. If we say that Svana is undergoing acculturation, we mean that she is:

a. refusing to speak any English at school. b. afraid to engage in social activities with her American peers. c. adopting some American behaviors and attitudes. d. maintaining all of the customs of her homeland.

3. Three of the following are likely to give you reasonable clues about a student’s cultural background and/or ethnic group membership. Which one is probably least dependable as an indicator of a student’s cultural background and ethnicity?

a. the color of a student’s skin b. what language is most often spoken at home c. the ethnicity of the student’s parents d. the cultural and religious activities in which a student regularly participates

4. Which one of the following is the best example of playing the dozens?

a. Jameel says to Ronald, “Your momma’s so fat her picture takes two frames.” Ronald responds, “Yeah? Well, your momma’s so fat it took three cows to make her a pair of shoes.” b. Helena tells her friend Mary that Wendy has been saying unkind things behind Mary’s back. She then goes to Wendy and tells her that Mary has been saying unkind things behind her back. c. Tariq devoutly follows Muslim practices (e.g., praying five times a day, fasting during Ramadan) on weekends and school holidays, but he tries to behave as his American classmates do on days when he attends school. d. When Alegria finishes her own classwork, she goes to the assistance of classmates who appear to be struggling with theirs.

Unit 2 Examination

84

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

5. A student says to you, “My momma, she be singin’ all da time.” This student appears to:

a. have a speech disorder that sometimes results from environmental toxins (e.g., lead-based paint). b. have had little exposure to language during a critical period in her language development. c. be using African American English, a dialect with some grammatical constructions different from those of Standard English. d. have grown up in Northern Ireland and so is using idioms typical of that country.

6. Three of the following alternatives describe reasons why, for cultural reasons, children may be relatively quiet in class. Which alternative is false?

a. In some cultures, children rarely hear spoken language until age 3 or 4. b. Children from some cultural backgrounds may have been taught that it’s rude to initiate a conversation with an adult. c. In some cultures, attentive listening is valued more highly than speaking. d. In some cultural groups, children are accustomed to learning more from quiet observation than from asking questions.

7. Psychologists believe that intelligence is culture-specific—that “intelligent” behavior in one culture is not necessarily intelligent behavior in a different culture. Three of the following are aspects of intelligence, regardless of the culture in which it is found. Which one is probably related to intelligence in some cultures but not in others?

a. learning how to perform a new task quickly b. doing well in academic classroom activities c. adapting readily to new situations d. applying prior knowledge to new situations

8. Robert is a 15-year-old boy who has attended U.S. schools since he began kindergarten at age 5. With this fact in mind, identify the task that is most likely to require Robert’s fluid intelligence rather than his crystallized intelligence.

a. applying algebra to a mathematical word problem b. solving a new kind of puzzle c. writing a persuasive essay on a current issue in the news d. finding Egypt on a map

9. Sam is a very talented dancer; he also shows considerable creativity in art class. He finds math and science classes very difficult, but he loves to read and tell stories to his many friends. Which view of intelligence is best reflected in Sam’s abilities?

a. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development b. Gardner’s multiple intelligences c. Sternberg’s triarchic theory d. distributed intelligence

Unit 2 Examination

85

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

10. Which one of the following statements best reflects Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?

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