Political Science

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This is a graded discussion: 25 points possible due Oct 12 at 1:59am

Week 6 Discussion: US Budget 63 63

Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Initial Post Instructions You are an advisor to the President tasked with cutting at least $300 billion from the budget. The president wants your recommendations to cut lines, not large categories. Submit your recommendations and your reasoning for such recommendations using these guidelines:

– Use evidence (cite sources) to support your recommendations from assigned readings or online lessons, and at least one outside scholarly source.

– Use the format provided below to present your numbers and totals followed by an explanation below the chart.

– Please note that these are not true US budget numbers, but are reasonable hypothetical numbers to help us consider the budget processes complexities.

Textbook: Chapter 10 Lesson Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

DOMESTIC PROGRAMS AND FOREIGN AID

Cut some foreign aid to African countries $17 billion

Eliminate farm subsidies $14 billion

Cut pay of civilian federal workers by 5 percent $14 billion

Reduce the overall federal workforce by 10% $12 billion

Cut aid to states by 5% $29 billion

MILITARY Cut the number of nuclear warheads, and end the “Star Wars” missile defense program

$19 billion

Reduce military to pre-Iraq War size and further reduce troops in Asia and Europe

$25 billion

Cancel or delay some weapons programs $19 billion

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Follow-Up Post Instructions Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification. Are the budget changes offered by your peers’ sound? Why or why not? Minimum of 1 scholarly source, which can include your textbook or assigned readings or may be from your additional scholarly research.

Writing Requirements

Grading

This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Cancel or delay some weapons programs $19 billion

HEALTHCARE Enact medical malpractice reform by reducing the chances of large malpractice verdicts

$ 8 billion

Increase the Medicare eligibility age to 68 $ 8 billion

Raise the Social Security retirement age to 68. $ 13 billion

EXISTING TAXES Return the estate tax to Clinton-era levels, passing on an estate worth more than $1 million to their heirs would have portions of those estates taxed.

$ 50 billion

End tax cuts for income above $250,000 a year $ 54 billion

End tax cuts for income below $250,000 a year $ 172 billion

Payroll tax increase for people making over $106,000 annually contributing more to Social Security and Medicare.

$ 50 billion

NEW TAXES Institute a Millionaire’s tax on income above $1 million $ 50 billion

Add a national 5% sales tax $ 41 billion

Add a tax on carbon emissions $ 40 billion

Tax banks based on their sizes and the amount of risk they take. $ 73 billion

Total gap covered by your budget plan

$_______ ________ __

Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up) Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside scholarly source) APA format for in-text citations and list of references

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This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Course Outcomes (CO): 5

Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

Link (webpage): Discussion Guidelines

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Aug 19, 2020

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ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES Class,

One option given above is a carbon tax. A carbon tax is an environmental tax (ecotax/ green tax/pollution tax). What are some other examples of environmental taxes?

It might be asserted that a carbon tax, along with other environmental taxes, would serve to both protect the environment and make cuts that would endanger the environment and more unnecessary. One underlying assumption may be that raising revenue is preferable to cutting taxes when it comes to bringing the budget into line. Another might be that government action is necessary to protect the environment. Would this be a modern liberal approach? (Whitman Cobb, 18) A socialist approach? (Whitman Cobb, 19) A classical liberal approach? Something else? Would you agree with this approach?

Do environmental taxes work? Have they worked in other places (https://meta.eeb.org/2017/11/23/the-5-most- successful-environmental-taxes-in-europe/) ? Why or why not?

Sam

PS It is perfectly OK to focus in on a specific issue like environmental taxes rather than putting together a whole budget proposal. If you want to post on environmental taxes, please do post right here.

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Stacey Ryle (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/117098) Monday

10/9/20, 12:52 AM Page 3 of 61

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Professor and Class

My tax revisions would ensure that we keep all domestic and foreign aide programs as well as money for healthcare. This is extremely important to the health and well being of each U.S. Citizen as well as foreign countries.

Military-

Cut the number of nuclear war heads—————————–$19 Billion

Reduce the military to pre-Iraq War size ————————-$25 Billion

Healthcare

Enact medical malpractice reform———————————$ 8 Billion

Existing taxes

Return the state to Clinto era levels——————————$50 Billion

End tax cuts for income above $250,000/year——————$54 Billion

New Taxes

Institute a millionaire tax——————————————–$50 Billion

Add Carbon emission tax——————————————–$40 Billion

Tax banks based on sizes and risks———————————$73 Billion

Total Cut

$319 Billion

“Last year’s 738 Billion National Defense Authorization Act was the largest on record coming at the expense of healthcare education, infrastructure spending, and public health research” (Lydon, 2020). This country has been facing a health pandemic that is not going away any time soon. Healthcare and public health research are the last items that should be cut. We are spending billions of dollars on our military, war and guns unnecessarily while families in the U.S. are unable to pay bills, get prescriptions and even eat. Cutting our military the pre-Iraq war size as well reducing the number of nuclear war heads would save a significant amount of money. We could then prioritze healthcare and education for our countries citizens.

A person making over $250,00 dollar per year should not be eligible for tax cuts. These cuts should be limited to middle class and lower income families who are struggling to make ends meet and are in need of the assistance. I also feel that returning the income tax to those passing on more than $1 million to their heirs as well as instituting a millionaire tax is also beneficial. Currently the estate tax is only paid if you pass on an estate greater thatn $5.3 million. The wealthy should pay their fair amount of taxes based off the money they are making or the amount they are passing on to their family members. If this fails to happen then, “the richest Americans are amassing huge fortunes, pasing them to their heirs, and creating a new aristocracy” (“Fact Sheet”, 2020). The rest of the American population is eithe living paycheck to paycheck or in poverty. This doesn’t seem fair.

Carbon tax is a tax set forth “that emitters must pay for each ton of greenhouse gas emissions they emit” (“Carbon Tax Basics”, 2017). By instituting a tax such as this one, consumers will be forced to look for alternate

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(“Carbon Tax Basics”, 2017). By instituting a tax such as this one, consumers will be forced to look for alternate sources of fuel in order to avoid paying the tax which will in turn, help reduce pollution.

There are other taxes that can be instituted as shown above. We, as a country need to invest in healthcare, education and programs that keep are country and its citizens safe, healthy and financially stable.

Thank you

Stacey Ryle

References

N.a. (2017). Carbon tax basics. Retrieved from https://www.c2es.org (https://www.c2es.org)

N.a.(2020). Fact sheet: The estate (inheritance) tax. Retrieved from: https://www.ameicansfortaxfairness.org. (https://www.ameicansfor)

Lydon, E. (2020). After years of wasted spending, congresswoman Lee calls to cut Pentagon budget, reprioritize programs that keep us safe. Retrieved from https:/www.commondreams .org

WhittmanCobb, W.N. (2020). Political science today (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: Sage CQ Press

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Tuesday

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ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES Emily, Stacey, and Class,

An environmental tax (ecotax/ green tax/pollution tax) is a tax on actions that are believed to be harmful to the environment. It raises money that can be used to protect the environment, but also serves to change behavior by shifting the costs of environmental degradation to the corporations and people who are causing it. What are some examples of specific environmental taxes in addition to carbon taxes?

Carbon taxes have been implemented … where? What are other real life examples of environmental taxes? Have they worked?

Sam

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Miranda Duellman (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/180986) Tuesday

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This seems like a real win-win situation. Increasing environmental taxes helps our environment and our economy. “If set high enough, it becomes a powerful monetary disincentive that motivates switches to clean energy across the economy, simply by making it more economically rewarding to move to non- carbon fuels and energy efficiency” (carbontax.org, 2020). This is probably my favorite thing that I have researched while doing this assignment because it truly is a great idea and a great way to stimulate the US. I hope that we can continue with this and come up with more ideas similar to this to help people, the environment, and everything in between.

Carbontax.org. (2020). Home. Retrieved October 06, 2020, from https://www.carbontax.org/whats-a- carbon-tax/

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Stacey Ryle (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/117098) Wednesday

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Miranda

I agree this seems to be a win-win situation. There are numerous types of environmental taxes such as taxes on plastic pollution, air quality pollution, climate change and green taxes. These benefits the earth as well as the people that live on it. It “can enable the governments to reduce taxes on other areas , in particular labor that weigh heavily on the shoulders of all citizens” (Anastasio, 2017). There was a landfill tax introduced in the United Kingdom. By doing this, the amount of waste in the landfill reduced from 50 milion tons in 2001 to 12 million in 2012. That is a significant decrease. Environmental taxes help increase the use of renewable resources and protect the ozone layer. These times of taxes are are important and necessary to the economy and the environment.

Thanks

Stacey Ryle

Reference

Anatasio, M. (2017). The five most sucessful environmental taxes in europe. https://www (https://www) .meta.eeb.org

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Yesterday

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Edited by Samuel Angus (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720) on Oct 8 at 10:55am

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ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES Emily, Stacey, Miranda, Bre, Kimberly, Nikki, and Class,

What are some examples of specific environmental taxes and where have they been implemented?

Landfill taxes in the UK significantly reduced the amount of waste going to landfills. Carbon taxes have led to significant reductions in carbon emissions in Sweden while its economy has been quite robust. What about other taxes … how have they worked out?

These taxes have not been used very extensively used in the USA, particularly at a federal level. Why not? Do we need to implement more of these sorts of taxes?

Sam

Carbon taxes: implemented in Sweden and … ? Plastic bad taxes: implemented … ? Landfill taxes: implemented in the UK, and … ? What else?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Tuesday

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ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES – IDEOLOGY Emily, Stacey, and Class,

Environmental taxes theoretically both protect the environment and make cuts that might endanger the environment unnecessary. One underlying assumption may be that raising revenue is preferable to cutting spending when it comes to bringing the budget into line. Another might be that government action is necessary to protect the environment. These assumptions are most consistent with what ideology? Modern liberalism? (Whitman Cobb, 18) Socialism? (Whitman Cobb, 19) Classical liberalism? Something else?

Sam

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Emily Fox (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/148024)

10/9/20, 12:52 AM Page 7 of 61

Wednesday

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Stacey and class,

I completely agree with you. I wholeheartedly believe that healthcare is a right, not a privilege and a persons illness should never cause them to go bankrupt. There are so many funds that are already being collected in our taxes that could be allocated towards healthcare. However, you’re right, new taxes should be implemented and other cuts should be made to ensure every person in our country has the care they need.

As a veteran I utilize socialized medicine and have for many years. I have had no trouble, which I know is not always the case. But it’s hardly the “broken system” that many people claim it to be.

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Jessica Medwick (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/152086) Yesterday

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Professor Angus and Class,

My proposal for the US budget would be as followed:

DOMESTIC PROGRAMS AND FOREIGN AID

Eliminate farm subsidies

$10 billion

Cut pay of civilian federal workers by 5 percent

$10 billion

Reduce the overall federal workforce by 10%

$8 billion

Cut aid to states by 5%

$25 billion

MILITARY

10/9/20, 12:52 AM Page 8 of 61

Cut the number of nuclear warheads, and end the “Star Wars” missile defense program

$12 billion

Reduce military to pre-Iraq War size and further reduce troops in Asia and Europe

$20 billion

Cancel or delay some weapons programs

$15 billion

HEALTHCARE

Enact medical malpractice reform by reducing the chances of large malpractice verdicts

$ 8 billion

Increase the Medicare eligibility age to 68

$ 5 billion

Raise the Social Security retirement age to 68.

$ 8 billion

EXISTING TAXES

End tax cuts for income above $250,000 a year

$20 billion

Payroll tax increase for people making over $106,000 annually contributing more to Social Security and Medicare.

$ 30 billion

NEW TAXES

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Institute a Millionaire’s tax on income above $1 million

$ 30billion

Add a tax on carbon emissions

$30 billion

Total Cut:

$301 Billion

The big tax cuts for me would be for the workers, health, and military taxes. The farm subsidies are known as agricultural subsidies. They are paid and other kinds of support extended by the United States government to certain farmers and agribusinesses. The original purpose of the U.S. farm subsidies was to provide economic stability to farmers during the Great Depression and to ensure a steady domestic food supply for Americans. The U.S. government pays around $25 billion to farmers and owners of the farmland. (White, 2020).

I feel like taxes for the working people should be cut. People work hard for their money and the more hours and time they put in it seems that more gets taken out to the government. “People should work for what they receive and be able to reap the benefits of working hard, and you may discourage people from working and bettering themselves if they know they will receive government assistance in any case” (Whitman Cobb, 2020). In the article, One Bad and Eight Good Reasons to Cut Taxes by David Boaz, states that if the taxes are not cut then Congress would spend the money anyway. The best way to help the people would be to let taxpayers keep the money. (Boaz, 2001).

Military spending is the second-largest item in the federal budget after social security. The estimate of the United States Military spending is 934 billion dollars. The military’s budget covers the DoD, overseas contingency operations, the VA, Homeland Security, the state department, and many others that involve national security. To reduce military costs, the DoD must reduce its civilian pay and benefits of soldiers, and its military bases around the world. Congress is reluctant to allow DoD to cut other costs like military health benefits and growth of military pay. Congress feels cuts will jeopardize national security. They are concerned about the cutback of troops, closure of domestic military bases, and termination of the weapons system. U.S. military is greater of the largest government expenditures combined. It allows other allies to cut back on their defense and spending and raises the U.S. budget deficit. (Brock, 2020).

The U.S. spends close to 20% for its national income on health. Taxes are mandatory and need to be paid. Cheap health care does not exist, and everyone needs health care. Private premiums morphed into regular taxes based on the ability to pay. Taxes for the wealthy may be higher than the middle- and low-income families due to the ability to pay. In contrast, cutting taxes on health care would create more take-home pay for workers. (Saez & Zucman, 2019).

Carbon tax is a fee that the government makes on any company that bums fossil fuels. The purpose of a carbon tax is to reflect on the true cost of burning carbon. To implement a carbon tax, the government must determine the external cost for each ton of greenhouse gas emission which is difficult because scientists and economists must agree on which assumptions to use. (Amadeo, 2020).

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economists must agree on which assumptions to use. (Amadeo, 2020).

Carbon tax is also known as environmental taxes. Denmark has some undesirable consequences in distributional effects with environmental taxes and are shown to be regressive along with Briannuland and Nordstrom. Some of the most frequently known environmental taxes are ERTS, that puts taxes on fossil fuels like gasoline and diesel. The number of ERTs varies from country to country. (Miller & Vela, 2013).

Jessica Medwick

References:

D.Boaz. One Bad and Eight Good Reasons to Cut Taxes. Cato Institute. Retrieved: https://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/one-bad-eight-good-reasons-cut-taxes (https://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/one-bad-eight-good-reasons-cut-taxes)

E.Saez & G. Zucman. 2019. Make No Mistake: Medicare for All Would Cut Takes for Most Americans. Retrieved: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/25/medicare-for-all-taxes-saez-zucman

(https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/25/medicare-for-all-taxes-saez-zucman)

K.Amadeo. 2020. Carbon Tax, Its Purpose, and How it Works. Retrieved: https://www.thebalance.com/carbon-tax-definition-how-it-works-4158043 (https://www.thebalance.com/carbon-tax-definition-how-it-works-4158043)

S.Miller & M. Vela. 2013. Are Environmental Related Taxes Effective? IDB. Retrieved: https://www.cbd.int/financial/mainstream/idb-tax.pdf (https://www.cbd.int/financial/mainstream/idb-tax.pdf)

T.Brock. 2020. US Military Budget, Its Components, Challenges, and Growth. Retrieved: https://www.thebalance.com/u-s-military-budget-components-challenges-growth-3306320 (https://www.thebalance.com/u-s-military-budget-components-challenges-growth-3306320)

WhitmanCobb, W.N. 2020. Political science today (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: Sage CQ Press

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Emily Fox (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/148024) Sunday

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Professor and Class,

My revisions to the budget would focus on taxes and reducing military. I would:

Cut the number of nuclear war heads —–$19 billion

Reduce military to pre-Iraq War size ——$25 billion

Return the estate tax to Clinton -era levels —–$50 billion

End tax cuts for incomes above $250,000/year ——$54 billion

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Institute a millionaire’s tax on income above 1 million ——$50 billion

Tax banks based on their sizes ——- $73 billion

Add tax on carbon emissions ——–$40 billion

$311 billion total

The military budget is currently $740 billion dollars. We are spending more on the military now than every before. By cutting the military budget by a lot it would leave more room in the budget for jobs, affordable housing, healthcare and childcare for those who need it most. This would also go for taxing the wealthy. Sharing the wealth to the citizens in this country by the way of tax cuts for the middle and lower class would make living in this country easier. This would make the top earners pay taxes just as the lower earners in the United States.

The carbon tax would help tackle climate change. There should be some sort of price on carbon emissions so that we can work on mitigating global warming. By taxing carbon emissions it would hopefully reduce the usage. I think most of these budget cuts proposed take on a modern liberal approach. “Modern liberal ideology espouses the belief that government can and should be used to enforce the equality and liberty of all people, including racial and gender equality” (Whitman Cobb, 19).

Sanders, B. (2020, June 30). A 10% cut to the US military budget would help support struggling Americans | Bernie Sanders. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/commentisfree/2020/jun/30/a-10-budget-cut-to- the-us-military-budget-by-10-to-help-save-lives-in-this-pandemic (https://www.theguardian.com/world/commentisfree/2020/jun/30/a-10-budget-cut-to-the-us-military-budget-by-10-to-help- save-lives-in-this-pandemic)

Democrats Want to Tax the Rich. Here’s How Those Plans Would Work (or Not). (2019, September 24). The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/09/24/business/economy/wealth-tax-rich.html

(https://www.theguardian.com/world/commentisfree/2020/jun/30/a-10-budget-cut-to-the-us-military-budget-by-10-to- help-save-lives-in-this-pandemic)

These Countries Have Prices on Carbon. Are They Working? (2019, April 2). The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/04/02/climate/pricing-carbon-emissions.html

Whitman Cobb, W. N. (2020). Political science today. Washington, Dc Sage, CQ Press.

(https://www.theguardian.com/world/commentisfree/2020/jun/30/a-10-budget-cut-to-the-us-military-budget-by-10-to- help-save-lives-in-this-pandemic)

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Siddony Blue (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/141474)

10/9/20, 12:52 AM Page 12 of 61

Monday

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Emily,

The tax cuts and military reductions are a very smart move. I think we are spending more on money with the military budget in an unnecessary manner. We are the strongest power in the world, but do not need to show it with military forces in different parts of the world. The budget should be cut to support the underfunded schools, and the failing healthcare system that are leaving Americans behind and to fend for themselves.

The more money that is contributed from those within the higher tax brackets could help fund those underfunded areas, such as education, without having to call on lawmakers to get education reform in place.

Siddony

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Monday

Edited by Samuel Angus (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720) on Oct 5 at 9:17am

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DEFENSE SPENDING Emily, Siddony, and Class,

Exactly how much do we spend currently on defense? 740 billion dollars? Is this every penny we spend on defense? How does our current defense spending compare with what other countries spend as well as what we spent 5, 10, or 20 years ago?

Who supports/advocates for/wants this spending and how come?

Is the current level of spending acceptable? Should we be spending less so that we can spend more on other priorities, and if so what cuts need to be made? Or should we actually be spending more?

Sam

PS The ongoing conversation on the environment can be found at the top of the discussion assignment (I started it myself).

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Tuesday

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DEFENSE SPENDING Stacey, Brandi, Lindsay, and Class,

Exactly how much do we spend currently on defense? 740 billion dollars? Is this every penny we spend on defense? How does our current defense spending compare with what other countries spend as well as what we spent 5, 10, or 20 years ago?

Who supports/advocates for/wants this spending and how come?

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