Political Science

*What is an Omnibus Tome? Omnibus is Latin for “everything.” Tome is a volume or an ancient Roman roll of papyrus. So, an Omnibus Tome is an “Everything Roll of Papyrus,” or, in MMW-speak, the volume that contains everything you will need to research, write and submit your MMW papers. It’s also just more fun to say than “the prompt.”

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Writing Assignment Overview 2 a. Assignment Description and Learning Goals 2 b. Project Sequence – Word count, due dates, values 2 c. Course Requirements – in order to pass the course 2 d. How to find your TAs comments on your Papers 2

II. MMW Guidelines for Writing and Submitting Papers 3-6 a. Formatting and Documentation of MMW Papers 3 b. Annotating and Submitting your Research Sources 3 c. Assignment Submission Instructions and Requirements 3-4 d. Trouble with Submissions 4-5 e. Late paper policy 5 f. Avoiding Plagiarism and Other Forms of Academic Misconduct 4-6

III. GETTING STARTED ON YOUR CRITICAL MEDIA ANALYSIS 7

a. Links for Research Resources 7 b. Links for Writing Analytical Papers 7 c. Links for Analyzing Media &Writing a Critical Media Analysis 7

IV. MMW 121 Writing Assignment Prompts 8-10

a. Prompt Assignment #1: Prospectus 8-9 b. News Source Websites 8-9 c. Prompt Assignment #2: Critical Media Analysis Paper 10 d. Questions for Analyzing News Sources 10

V. Appendix 11-12

a. Grading Rubric Assignment #1: Prospectus 11 b. Grading Rubric Assignment #2: Critical Media Analysis Paper 12

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I. THE WRITING ASSIGNMENT OVERVIEW: Critical Media Analysis In MMW 122 you will study the major ideas, events, movements, and systems that have shaped our modern, globalized world. The writing assignment for the course gives you an opportunity to examine the modern idea of universal human rights as prescribed in the historic Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) co-authored by Eleanor Roosevelt and adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948. In this assignment you will select one of the universal human rights articulated in the UDHR, undertake a comparative analysis of five current news media sources that discuss your chosen human right, and advance an argument about the how that right is depicted and what is the significance of this depiction/variety of depictions. You will use contemporary news media sources and scholarly secondary sources in making your argument and supporting your analysis. The MMW 122 paper draws on the critical analysis, research, and writing skills that you learned MMW 121. Learning Goals: MMW and the media analysis assignment will help you develop methods of clear and disciplined thinking in order to negotiate the complexities of college, career and civic life. The purpose of the assignment is to:

examine the concept of universal human rights in the global contemporary world investigate the coverage of human rights in global news sources (moving away from popular media

comfort zones like blogs, Reddit, Facebook Twitter, etc.) improve multi-literacies that include critical media literacy and digital literacy skills and competencies to

develop citizenship in the contemporary globalized world. practice skills to access, evaluate and analyze global contemporary news media sources practice analytical skills by advancing an argument grounded in scholarly research about your topic by

separating research-based claims from opinion

The portfolio of final papers in MMW 121 and MMW 122 (each 1500 words minimum) may fulfill the UCSD Upper-Division Writing Requirement (Option B). PROJECT SEQUENCE: Successful and timely completion of each step is required to pass the course 1. Assignment 1: Prospectus (500-750 words) due by beginning of lecture Aug 19 (Week 3) 15% of grade 2. Assignment 2: Critical Media Analysis (1500-2000 words) due by beginning of lecture Sept 2 (Week 5) 20% of grade

COURSE REQUIREMENTS: In order to pass the course you must:

1. Complete and submit all writing assignments (note deadlines in prompt) in order to pass the course. 2. Cite all the material you use from any source and submit labeled and highlighted PDFs or .DOCX files of

each source used in your paper, as directed in “Guidelines for Papers.” 3. Follow the university’s policies on academic integrity found in “Guidelines for Papers.” 4. Submit all writing assignments to Canvas, 5. Submit an electronic copy of your Prospectus and final paper to Turnitin.com.

How to Find Your TA’s Grades and Comments on Your Papers After your TA has graded all papers in a section, the TA will release the papers in Canvas so that you can see your grade and your TAs comments on your paper. Click on your graded paper to see the comments. TAs may also mark criteria on the Grading Rubric that you submitted.

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II. MMW Guidelines for Writing and Submitting Papers –MMW 14, 15, 121, 122

Word Count The minimum and maximum word counts are consistent with the requirements of the ERC Upper Division Writing Requirement. The word count of your essay, excluding Works Cited page and headings, must fall within this range to meet the requirements of the assignment. Sources MMW papers require the use of scholarly (peer-reviewed) sources and sometimes additional sources as indicated in prompts or with prior approval of our TA. Formatting and Documentation of MMW Papers Follow these guidelines for all papers written for MMW (unless otherwise instructed): • Provide a complete, double-spaced heading that includes your name, your TA’s name, your section

number, the assignment number or title, and the date. • Type with Times New Roman 12-font and double-space the paper, including the heading (no single-

spacing). • Number multiple pages using MLA format. • Give the paper a title. • Use 1″ margins on all four sides. • Use MLA documentation to credit all sources, including lecture and Internet material. For

documentation format, see Easy Writer. Annotating and Submitting your Research Paper Sources You are required to submit the pages of your sources you used in your paper. For each source:

1. Scan the title page and copyright page. 2. Highlight/mark and scan each page in the source from which you took material, showing the material

you have summarized, paraphrased, quoted and cited. 3. Save the title page, copyright page, and marked source pages as a .PDF or .DOCX file.

• Do not save them as JPEGs or any other format. Canvas will not accept any file type but .PDF and .DOCX.

• Geisel Library has computers with Adobe that can consolidate pages into one .PDF file. • DO NOT SUBMIT A WHOLE ARTICLE OR BOOK – only the pages that you use in your paper. If the file is too big it will cause a malfunction in your entire submission and may even crash the system.

4. Name your source file: “Author’s last name_Title of Document” (can be a short version of the title as long as it correlates to the Work Cited list in a clear way).

5. Submit each source as a separate attachment (one submission, several attachments). Some TAs prefer all of your sources to be scanned and submitted as one file; check with your TA for their preference.

Assignment Submission Instructions and Requirements (Two Submissions for each assignment) See individual prompts for checklists of what you must submit for that assignment. In general:

1. Assignment Submission: Canvas will automatically send your submission to Turnitin.com a. Save your essay as “Paper + the number of the assignment (1, 2) as a .DOC or .DOCX file. Turnitin will

only accept .DOC or .DOCX formats (no PDFs for this submission). b. Go to your Canvas site, click on Modules, Submit Assignments, and follow the directions.

2. Source, Rubric, and Other Submission. See assignment prompt for specifics. a. Preparing and Saving files

i. Sources: For each source you used, submit an electronic file in .PDF or .DOCX format (see Annotating, Scanning, and Submitting Your Research Sources above).

ii. Rubric: Copy and paste the grading rubric and save it as a .PDF or .DOCX file named “Rubric.” iii. Other files: Sometimes the assignment prompt will require that you submit other files, too.

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Please see the individual prompts for a checklist of all required files. b. Uploading Assignment files to Canvas

i. Click on the “Modules” link, and go to “Submit Assignments.” Choose the assignment for which you are submitting and follow the directions for submitting the sources, rubric, and other files.

ii. Upload ALL required files, one at a time, as specified for the assignment. iii. After you have checked that you have uploaded the correct version of ALL of your

documents, click “Submit.”

If you have trouble with your submission, and before you contact your TA: Make sure that you have not submitted whole books or articles. Files that are too large can overload the

system, cause a malfunction in your submission, and may result in late penalties. Make sure that you are submitting files in PDF or .DOX file formats ONLY, for reasons above. Try another browser. Sometimes that works. Chrome often works best. Try another computer. The computers on campus should be able to handle these submissions. Try again. At least 3 times. Then contact your TA with a very detailed description of the problem, perhaps with a screen shot.

Late paper policy Your assignment will be counted as late and will not be graded until ALL of the submissions described above are completed. You must submit all paper assignments to Canvas by the beginning of lecture on the due date. You may not turn in hard copies of papers to the MMW office, nor may you put them in your TA’s mailbox (these will not be graded).

You will lose one-third of a letter grade for each day that a paper submission is late. Remember that a weekend counts as three days; if your paper is due on a Friday, and you don’t turn it in until Monday, you will lose an entire letter grade.

There comes a time when a paper assignment is so late that it will no longer be accepted and a student will fail the entire course for not fulfilling the MMW program requirement that all paper assignments must be completed and submitted in a timely manner. This policy applies to the 1) Prospectus and 2) Final Paper. Please see the specific assignment prompt for the precise final date that a submission will be accepted and after which a student will fail the course. Any exception to this policy must be requested along with legitimate and verifying documentation and accepted by your TA in advance of this final deadline.

Plagiarism and other academic misconduct: MMW requires each writing assignment to be the product of original individual work. While we encourage you to discuss your ideas—and to share your sources of information—with others, we expect the words you submit for a grade to be yours and the scholars you quote. It is your responsibility to comply with the University’s Policy on Integrity of Scholarship outlined below:

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Here are some forms of academic misconduct that violate the UCSD Policy on Integrity of Scholarship: Plagiarism consists of using an author’s words, ideas, or information, or of copying the word order or structure of an author’s work without acknowledging that author as your source. It is your responsibility to ensure that you have not plagiarized anything in the work you submit for grading. Be careful to avoid unintentional plagiarism. For example, if you include a direct quotation in your paper—even one that is only a few words long—you must be sure to enclose it in quotation marks and to acknowledge your source with a parenthetical citation. You must also introduce a paraphrase with the name of the source and followed by a parenthetical citation. You must even credit sources with anonymous authors, such as many websites, in this way. Consult a writing handbook or talk with one of your instructors if you are unsure of exactly what is and what is not considered to be plagiarism, or if you are unclear about the rules for the correct citation of sources. Give credit to all authors and speakers whose work you use, and enclose all quoted material in quotation marks. As a rule, it is better to give too much credit than too little – so when in doubt, cite. Fabrication of a source citation – that is, taking material from one source but crediting that material to another source, or making up a source citation – also violates University rules. Provide correct citation information; attributing material to the wrong author or the wrong text is almost as bad as giving no credit at all. Using material from another course As addressed in #7 from the Policy on Integrity of Scholarship above, you may not reuse material from a previous course in a new course without the permission of your instructor. This is considered academic misconduct because it attempts to earn new academic credit for work that is not done in the current course; this is considered an unethical attempt to earn credit without putting in the work. Why? Because you earn new academic credit for conducting new research and writing new assignments. If you want to use a very small portion of your previous paper, you have to clear it with your TA first to determine that it meets this criteria. Consequences of Academic Misconduct The University considers plagiarism and other academic misconduct to be serious academic offenses. Anyone whose paper appears to contain a plagiarized passage or to otherwise violate the rules on academic integrity will have his or her work reviewed by MMW’s Academic Coordinators and the professor. If the violation is found to be serious enough, the student could receive an “F” on the assignment or an “F” for the course (the academic

Students’ Responsibilities Students are expected to complete the course in compliance with the Instructor’s standards. No student shall engage in any activity that involves attempting to receive a grade by means other than honest effort; for example:

1. No student shall knowingly procure, provide, or accept any unauthorized material that contains questions or answers to any examination or assignment that is being, or will be, administered.

2. No student shall complete, in part or in total, any examination or assignment for another person.

3. No student shall knowingly allow any examination or assignment to be completed, in part or in whole, for himself or herself by another person.

4. No student shall plagiarize or copy the work of another person and submit it as his or her own work.

5. No student shall employ aids excluded by the instructor in undertaking course work or in completing any exam or assignment.

6. No student shall alter graded class assignments or examinations and then resubmit them for regrading.

7. No student shall submit substantially the same material in more than one course without prior authorization.

To see full policy: https://senate.ucsd.edu/Operating-Procedures/Senate-Manual/appendices/2

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sanction is determined by the professor) and the student’s file will be forwarded to the UCSD Office of Academic Integrity and to the ERC Dean of Student Affairs. If the Dean determines that there is, indeed, academic misconduct, she will impose a conduct sanction, the severity of which will depend on the extent of the misconduct. It is important to note that even a first offense can result in a quarter’s suspension and that the standard sanction for a second offense is suspension or permanent dismissal from the university. Any instance of academic misconduct can be recorded in a student’s file. Such a record might interfere with a student’s acceptance into law, medical, or graduate school, or might make that student ineligible for positions requiring a security clearance, such as a government internship. We hope that you will never feel the need to plagiarize out of fear that your own work isn’t good enough. We expect students to write like students, not like professionals. What matters most is for you to demonstrate that you’ve thought about the material and that you’ve learned something from it. Your own words are the best reflection of you.

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III. RESOURCES FOR YOUR CRITICAL MEDIA ANALYSIS PROJECT Links for Analyzing Media Sources and Writing a Critical Media Analysis The following links provide access to three college/university Libguides (library guides) with guidance on how to critically analyzing media sources. Please note that they are merely helpful suggestions, but since they are from other college programs, they do not substitute for the instructions that are in this Omnibus Tome. They are merely resources to give you ideas.

Eastern Michigan University Library: https://guides.emich.edu/newseval/overview Lehman University: https://libguides.lehman.edu/c.php?g=733610&p=5241444 Highline College: https://library.highline.edu/fakenews/evaluation

Links for Resources on Narrowing Topics, Finding Sources and Writing Research-Based Critical Analysis Papers:

• Easy Writer (MMW 121 and MMW 122): pp. 72-100) • Supplemental materials accessed with the links below:

– UCSD Lib Guides for MMW courses (library research guides) – UCSD Library Research Tutorial for MMW courses – Two-minute videos (writing as decision-making, topic exploration, why/how we cite, writing

about academic arguments, etc.) How do I Know if a Source is Peer-Reviewed? Evaluating Sources to Answer a Research Question Evaluating Sources for Credibility Strength of Evidence Writing as Decision-Making (topic exploration and topic narrowing) Drawing Relationships (writing about arguments in academic research papers) Reverse Outlining (making revision; Rough Draft and Final Paper) Reading Aloud (making revisions; Rough Draft and Final Paper) Proofreading How We Cite Why We Cite Writing Concisely

– MMW Handouts: Credible Source Form Sources for MMW Research Papers How to Narrow Down and Focus Topics for MMW Papers Conceptual Problem and Significance Worksheet Level-3 Questions and Claims Counterarguments in MMW Counterarguments Chart (by MMW TA)

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IV. The MMW 122 Writing Assignments – Critical Media Analysis Assignment #1 Prompt: Prospectus Late Assignment: If you fail to submit the Prospectus by the date posted on p. 2, you will be assigned late penalties. The Assignment will no longer be accepted after one week of the due date, and you will fail the course for not completing a required writing assignment in a timely manner. What is a Prospectus? The prospectus is a 500-750 word plan for your final paper analysis. It is probably the most important, and often the most difficult, assignment to write so you should plan to spend some time on this first step of your critical media analysis. Its purpose is to help you organize your research and your analysis into an argument: to present your research in news media sources and to begin to formulate your thesis and the supporting arguments, counterarguments, rebuttals, and evidence you need to make your claim. Remember that your prospectus is a planning document, not a final draft; you are free to make substantial changes if further research shows you that you need to do so. But you should demonstrate that you have a good research project for the final analysis. Step 1 – Topic Selection:

Read the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration- human-rights/, including the Preamble. Choose a recent topic (within the past year) or a developing news story related to one (1) of the thirty Articles in the UDHR . Search mainstream foreign newspapers/news media sites for an event, series of events, movement, or issue related to the human right you have selected. (See list below of appropriate news sites for this assignment.)

Step 2 – Research: Selecting news sources.

Locate coverage of your topic in a minimum of five (5) mainstream news media articles from English-language news sources published in three (3) different continents. Do not use social media news sources.

Possible news websites: World-Newspapers.com (directory of world newspapers) http://www.world-newspapers.com/

(contains access to news sources in Africa, Asia, Australia and Oceania, Europe, Middle East, North and Central America, US (state and local papers).

In addition to the news sources listed in World-Newspapers.com above, you might also try these: Middle East

The Saudi Network (directory of Saudi newspapers) http://www.the-saudi.net/directory/news-papers.htm Arab News (Saudi Arabia) http://www.arabnews.com/ The Jerusalem Post http://www.jpost.com/ Haaretz (Israel) https://www.haaretz.com/ Palestine News Network http://english.pnn.ps/ The Daily Star (Lebanon) http://www.dailystar.com.lb/ Daily News Egypt https://dailynewsegypt.com/ Al Ahram Weekly (Egypt) http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/ Al Jazeera (Qatar) https://www.aljazeera.com/ Hurriyet Daily News (Turkey) http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/ Tehran Times http://www.tehrantimes.com/

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Step 3 – Writing the Prospectus

Begin with an introductory paragraph that includes the necessary background and historical context of the topic, including the actual text of your chosen UDHR article. Then, summarize each news source that you will evaluate, compare and contrast in your final paper. Avoid excessive quotations, as this is supposed to be your own plan for your final paper, but cite where necessary. It would be helpful to look at the prompt for the final Critical Media Analysis Paper so that you can demonstrate that you will have an appropriate project that will meet the requirements of the final paper. The prospectus should demonstrate that you: a) have identified a current events topic related to the human right you selected, and b) have consulted appropriate news media sources and found at leave five (5) news stories on your topic from at least three (3) different continents and c) have some initial ideas about the scholarly research you might conduct for your final analysis. This will help your TA give you more specific feedback and suggestions.

Step 4 – Include a Works Cited in MLA format (See MMW Guidelines for Writing and Submitting Papers section above) Step 5 – Submit Prospectus Essay, Works Cited, Sources and Rubric according to the MMW Guidelines for Papers section above.

Europe The Independent (UK) https://www.independent.co.uk/us

The Guardian (UK) https://www.theguardian.com/us North America New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/ Los Angeles Times http://www.latimes.com/ Reuters https://www.reuters.com/ Associated Press https://www.apnews.com/

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Assignment #2 Prompt: Critical Media Analysis (Final Paper) Late Assignment: Your final paper will not be accepted after the Final Exam. Because all components of the writing assignment are required to pass the course, you will fail the course if your final paper is not submitted by this time. If you do not submit this assignment at all, you will fail the course for not completing all four required writing assignments. What is a Critical Media Analysis Paper? In 1500-2000 words, compare and contrast how your topic was covered in each news story and answer the following question:

Using your topic as a case study or example, what argument can you make about how this universal human right is depicted and the significance of this depiction?

Analyzing News Sources Compare and contrast your news articles with some of the following questions in mind: • What do you know about the newspaper/site that published this story? What do you know about the

reporter/editor? Are these state, corporate or validated independent media sources/stories? What’s make them more or less credible than others?

• What is the tone and vocabulary of the article? What adjectives or verbs are used to describe the event? • What sources does the article’s author rely on? Who is quoted? • What is the position/location and length of the article? How is it presented on the page/site? • If an image is used, what is its content and impact? • How does the narrative change or stay the same with each new source? • How might the above questions reveal biases in the news story? • What overall impression does this article convey about the given topic? • What difference does it make if one news source is describing an event in a different way than another? • What issues should a reader keep in mind when reading the news stories you selected? • Why is it important to read several news sources before drawing conclusions? • Compare and contrast sources from one region to those from another. In what ways are they different or

similar in terms of their coverage? What information is included? Excluded? What is significant about this?

Grounding your analysis in scholarship. Before making your argument, read at least three (3) scholarly sources related to your topic. These may be for current or historical background and/or to help you evaluate the credibility of any of your sources. Referencing and integrating scholarly sources will give you some tools for your analysis, argument and final conclusions about the significance of your argument. Making a credible, convincing and research-based argument. Make an argument about the depiction of the human right you selected in the news sources related to your topic. Include a strong and clear thesis statement and present your argument with supporting arguments, evidence, and/or rebutted counter-arguments. Submit Works Cited and Pages of Sources Used to Canvas Your Works Cited and headings are not included in the word count.

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V. APPENDIX

Grading Rubric Assignment 1 Prospectus MMW 122, Summer 2019

In order to do well on this assignment, you must submit and accomplish the following in a timely manner; your TA will not grade your assignment until all parts are correctly submitted to Canvas: 1. Topic Selection: A clear and precise topic including clear articulation of a universal human right from the

UDHR (with necessary background) 2. Topic Selection: A clear and precise topic that addresses a single relevant current event, movement, or issue

covered in global media sources. The “event” is recent (unfolding in the last year) or current (still developing).

3. Quality of Research/Sources: Five (5) mainstream news media sources from three (3) different continents. The sources all address the single current “event”/your topic. The sources are not social media sources.

4. Quality of Prospectus: a. Meets 500-750 word count limitations and all other requirements in the MMW Guidelines for Papers b. Demonstrates that sources are relevant to an examination of universal human rights. c. Includes an introduction that transcribes the human rights UDHR article selected and provides

necessary background for understanding the human right and “event” selected d. Includes a summary of each news story that indicates e. Communicates ideas for your further research plan for the final critical media analysis

5. Quality of Writing: a. Objectively paraphrase all ideas and summarize each news story in your own words as much as

possible b. Objectively explain the credibility, perspective and position of the author. c. Provide in-text citations in MLA format where needed. d. Provide a Works Cited page in MLA format. e. Use clear, grammatically correct, stylistically effective expository prose.

6. Submissions: a. On time b. Complete: Prospectus + Sources + Works Cited + Rubric + Turnitin

A-/A: Exemplary. Meets all of the above criteria at an exceptionally high level, exceeding expectations, in most,

if not all instances B/B+: Proficient. Meets most of the above criteria at a high level with only minor exceptions C+/B-: Mostly Proficient/Some Areas Need Development. Meets most of the above criteria at a high level, with

some more serious issues that interfere with full realization of goals C-/C: Developing. Minimally meets the above criteria, and for the most part succeeds at a generally acceptable

level, but assignment is difficult to follow or not compelling because of issues with one or more criteria D: Insufficient. Meets some criteria; but significant parts of the assignment are not sufficiently addressed, if

at all, are often unclear, or errors significantly impair the assignment. F: Fails. Fails to complete the most critical, basic parts of the assignment, word count is significantly low,

topic is outside the scope of the assignment, sources are inappropriate. There is little evidence of a good faith effort at attempting the assignment.

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Grading Rubric Assignment 2 (Critical Media Analysis)

MMW 122, Summer 2019

Submit your analysis, sources, Works Cited and grading rubric on the date/time due. Your TA will not grade your paper until all required documents are submitted; late penalties will apply. To do well on the essay, you should: 1. Topic Selection: Articulates a clear and precise topic including the text of a universal human right from the UDHR (with

necessary background) 2. Topic Selection: Articulates a clear and precise topic that addresses a single relevant current event, movement, or issue

covered in global media sources. The “event” is recent (unfolding in the last year) or current (still developing). 3. Quality of Research/News Sources: Includes at least five (5) mainstream news media sources from three (3) different

continents. All sources address the current “event”/your topic, and are not social media sources. The analysis demonstrates relevance of these news stories to your topic.

4. Quality of Research/Scholarly Sources: Includes at least three (3) scholarly sources relevant to your topic and the argument and claims made in the analysis.

5. Analysis: a. Compares and contrasts news stories’ depictions of the topic b. Demonstrates consideration and use of the analytical questions listed on p. 10 of the Omnibus Tome as relevant c. Integrates scholarly sources in a substantial way in order to evaluate the credibility of the news stories, make or

refute arguments and claims, provide evidence and other support, and/or draw conclusions. d. Makes a credible, convincing, and research-based argument about the news source depictions of the human

right you selected, including a conclusion addressing some of the implications or significance of your argument. 6. Quality of Writing:

a. Analysis is within the 1500-2000 word count limitations b. Objectively paraphrases all ideas and summarize each news story in your own words as much as possible c. Objectively explains the credibility, perspective and position of the author. d. Provides in-text citations in MLA format where needed. e. Provides a Works Cited page in MLA format. f. Uses clear, grammatically correct, stylistically effective expository prose.

7. Submissions: a. On time b. Complete: Analysis + Sources + Works Cited + Rubric + Turnitin

A-/A: Meets all of the above criteria at an exceptionally high level, exceeding expectations, in most, if not all

instances, and makes a persuasive argument. B/B+: Meets most of the above criteria at a high level, with only minor exceptions and makes a persuasive

argument. C+/B-: Meets most of the above criteria at a high level, with some serious issues that interfere with full

realization of goals. C-/C: Minimally meets all of the above criteria, and for the most part succeeds at an acceptable level, but

assignment is difficult to follow or not compelling because of issues with one or more criteria D: Meets some criteria, but missing several of the minimum requirements in bold above; often unclear or

undeveloped; errors significantly impair the assignment F: Fails to complete the minimum requirements of the assignment; paper is significantly too short, lacks

citations or is unrelated to the prompt.

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