Political Science

Running head: THE RESURGENCE OF NATIONALISM 1

THE RESURGENCE OF NATIONALISM 9

August 2018 Comment by Angela Parham: You are missing your Abstract.Abstract: Includes the following components: purpose of the research, methodology, findings, and conclusion. The body of the abstract is limited to 150-200 words.

Your paper is not ready for the Program Director Review.  It is still written as if a survey was conducted.  See my feedback.

Your paper needs to be in the correct format.   I have attached the 2018 EOP Manual that outlines the different sections of the paper.

On page 40 and 41 (attached appendix file) of the 2018 EOP Manual, provides a list of elements the Master’s theses are expected to contain.  Please use this as your guide for structuring your paper.

Also see pages 46 -54 for formatting. ( attached appendix file))

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 4

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Background of the Problem 6

1.3 Statement of the Problem 8

1.4 Purpose of the Study 9

1.5 Research Question 9

1.6 Significance of the Study 9

1.7 Definition of Terms 10

1.8 Assumptions, Limitations and Delimitations 10

1.9 Conclusion 11

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Search Description 12

2.3 Theoretical Framework 12

2.4 Review of the literature 13

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 22

3.1 Introduction 22

3.2 Research Design 22

3.3 Research Question 23

3.4 Setting 24

3.5 Participants 24

3.6 Data Collection 24

3.7 Data Analysis 25

3.8 Conclusion 26

CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS 27

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, DISCUSSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 34

5.1 Introduction 34

5.2 Summary of Findings 34

5.3 Conclusions 36

5.4 Discussion 40

5.5 Suggestions for Future Research 44

5.6 Conclusion 46

References 47

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Introduction

The election of President Donald J Trump and Brexit have highlighted the resurgence of nationalism in the modern society as workers who are anxious about the effects of globalization on their employment chances turn on outsiders. In addition, the strong performance of Marine Le Pin in the presidential election in France and the resurgence of nationalist parties in Eastern Europe have increased the anxiety of stakeholders about the rise of nationalism and its implications for the society.

The definition of nationalist companies involves a commitment by right wing parties towards embracing isolation in a bid to insulate their countries from the economic disruption that has been caused by the glob al economic system.

The left behind thesis has been used by many observers of the phenomenon in demonstrating the causes of the resurgence of nationalism (Haidt, 2016). The view is informed by the belief that globalization has raised the quality of life of people across the world except those in western societies. The less educated members of the society lose their employment opportunities to countries with cheap labor and minimal environmental regulations. In addition, workers have also lost employment opportunities to the immigrants who have moved to the country. Employers prefer using immigrants on low-skilled labor because the approach enables them to reduce their operating costs. In towns, which have witnessed stagnation, the residents resent the progress of others while their lives remain the same. The increasing inequality in the society has continued to attract the resentment of the locals who have missed the economic transformation that is captured in the rising opulence, skyscrapers and financial growth for professionals.

Nationalist candidates have observed that the struggle between the nationalism and those with a globalization agenda is one between patriots and those who do not love their country (Sauers, 2010). However, it is evident that nationalists have embraced a narrow view of the global economy and how their communities’ suit into it.

It is evident that the racist undertones in the society have not ended in spite of the efforts, which have been made by governments across the world to create harmony. As a result, it is evident that communities need to have a conversation about racial differences and equality (Sabato, 2017).

The resurgence of nationalism is occurring at a time where some countries are experiencing an increased push for closer international cooperation (BBC, 2018). Donald Trump is leading the resurgence of nationalism. The move by President Donald Trump to enact trade tariffs has contributed towards the increasing divide within the international community over the role of globalization in the modern society. He has also highlighted a willingness to renegotiate NAFTA. The move by the President of the United States has been the primary cause of concern over the impact that the resurgence of nationalism may have on the modern society. The experience of Brexit has demonstrated the inherent challenges that the nationalist movement would face once it ascends to power. The United Kingdom is slowly learning that isolation may have unintended negative effects that outweigh the value that would be derived from the move. However, Brexit has highlighted the structural and systemic challenges, which have undermined public confidence in the centralization of decision-making and the governance of people. The rise of nationalism has undermined the ability of the international community to collaborate and engage in the management of the public sector. The success of the international community is based on the trust of members of the public with each other. The resurgence of nationalism threatens to undermine the ability of stakeholders to collaborate with each other (BBC, 2018). The resignation of Gary Cohn as the top economist of the United States has highlighted the commitment of globalists towards fighting nationalism. Understanding how to manage the resurgence of nationalism and create an effective social-economic system that promotes inclusive patriotism is essential to facilitating the long-term stability of the global economic system. Comment by Angela Parham: Spell out first time.

1.2 Background of the Problem

The growth and development of a society results in an increased desire among the people to overcome the traditional values in favor of more open to change, progressiveness and social engineering. As Western nations achieved economic development, they moved towards emphasizing the emancipative values, which highlight the importance of individual rights and protections for an individual (Greenfeld, 2003). The rise in individuality in Western societies has undermined the identity of the people in the society. The fading of survival challenges has led the society to celebrate employment opportunities such as coding which enable an individual to express himself or herself. The shift means that people who lose jobs in outsourced factories and closed mines have challenges forming an identity in a society, which does not respect their values a lot. Democratic capitalism has also resulted in the organization of the business environment presenting challenges to the living standards of the people. The rise of the young urban elite has resulted in leaving behind many rural economies.

Local ties have weakened in the society as the people have moved to towards urban areas. The people start to perceive themselves as citizens of the world as opposed to those of their individual countries (Gellner, 1998). However, nationalism has also continued to influence mainstream politics with the British Prime Minister stating, “If you are a citizen of everywhere, you are a citizen of nowhere”. The remark demonstrated the evolution of public mood in the British society as Gordon Brown’s remarks in 2007 stating that “British jobs for British workers” had been referred to as an act of racism. The liberal universalism had contributed towards the creation of the resentment among the people who believed that their government had failed to provide effective support for local business and workers. Comment by Angela Parham: Citation needed. Comment by Angela Parham: Citation needed.

Internationalism led to the increased competition for jobs as societies sought to create opportunities for immigrants. Multicultural globalists advocated for the rise of the globalization and immigration as it sought to share opportunities and create an enabling environment for corporations to choose the best talent from anywhere in the world.

Nationalists and globalists had a competing vision as they failed to agree on the subject of immigration. Nationalists have increasingly held the view that the globalization agenda has been driven by the business community which seeks to use immigrants to access the cheapest labor (Hutchinson, 2000). Some nationalists hold the view that their country is better than others are. In contrast, others are racist and illiberal. In addition, some believe that their patriotic values place them with a moral responsibility of contributing towards the protection of the people.

The terrorist attacks in the society have had a negative impact on the society. Terrorism has led to phobia against Islamic immigrants due to the fear of the impact that they have on the society. The fear of radical Islam has fueled the opposition against immigration of Muslims in the society.

The responses of the people towards immigration are influenced by the fear and anxiety that people have over their economic well-being and safety (Spencer & Wollman, 2005). The biggest challenge that members of the public and their leaders have had in reacting to the problem of nationalism is the lack of empathy among the leaders. Many people have failed to demonstrate an appreciation of the concerns that have made some communities resistant to immigration and globalization.

The resurgence of nationalism threatens international peace and collaboration at a time when nations have the responsibility of engaging in shared problem solving. A return to nationalism and the rise of nationalism and protectionism could have an adverse effect on the rise of globalization and the impact that it can have on the society (BBC, 2018). The success of individual nations and their citizens is increasingly dependent on treaties and partnerships with other countries to harness their comparative advantage. The ability of communities to achieve desirable outcomes in the present age depends on their ability to collaborate with others and take advantage of the opportunities that are available across the world.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

The rise of nationalism is a consequence of the anxiety that people are experiencing in their interaction with others (Kohl & Fawcett, 1996). Billionaire leaders such as President Donald Trump have successfully tapped into the discontent of the people with the existing global economic system to further their political agenda. In addition, many people have failed to understand the issues that are important to the people who are feeling left behind by the globalization in the society. Leaders recognize that a failure to manage the resurgence of nationalism could undermine the ability of the international community to tackle shared challenges that require cooperation among different countries such as climate change and global economic system. In addition, isolationist policies tend to enhance the extremist positions in countries, undermining the ability of their elected leaders to engage in the compromises that are essential to the effective governance of a state. The international community needs to understand the nature of the threat posed by nationalism in the modern society and the impact that it could have on political stability and economic growth.

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the factors that have resulted in the resurgence of nationalism and its implications on the international community. The insights gained from this study will form the basis for addressing the concerns that have made some people in the Western nations to reject globalization. It will also provide an effective long-term strategy for protecting the society from the systemic attempts aimed at closing individual countries from each other. The insights gained from this study will contribute towards the promotion of globalization and collaboration efforts in the international community.

Despite the committed support of President Donald Trump for nationalism, he has continued to face sustained opposition from members of Congress from both parties and the business community. As a result, his actions have been limited though they have undermined the role of the United States as the guarantor of the free market system.

1.5 Research Question

· What has caused the resurgence of nationalism? Comment by Angela Parham: What is your Hypothesis? Comment by Angela Parham: Your hypothesis should be something that you can actually test, what’s called a testable hypothesis. In other words, you need to be able to measure both “what you do” and “what will happen.” Most of the time a hypothesis is written like this: “If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen.” Your hypothesis should always explain what you expect to happen during the course of your research.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is timely due to the increasing interest among scholars and the international community to understand the resurgence of nationalism and its long-term effects. The study will also seek to evaluate the steps that can be taken to enhance the engagement of all people in creating a prosperous and shared economy. The findings of the study will contribute towards informed discourse on the issue of nationalism and enable policy makers to make informed choices about the challenges facing some communities and the effective intervention measures, which should be used to reduce the extremist positions held by others on globalization. The significance of the study is that it addresses an important contemporary issue that has a disruptive effect on the continued civilization of the modern society.

1.7 Definition of Terms Comment by Angela Parham: I would recommend writing this is paragraph form.

Globalists: individuals who support globalization

Globalization: the process through which businesses or organizations gain influence across the world

Nationalism: advocacy for the political independence of a country

Patriotism: the quality of vigorous support for one’s country

Immigration: the movement of people into a country in which they are not citizens

1.8 Assumptions, Limitations and Delimitations

The study will assume that those who support nationalism have different reasons based on their experiences and their values. However, the biggest limitation of the study is the inability to conduct extensive interviews and ethnographic observations in order to understand the perceptions of the people concerning nationalism. In spite of the inability to conduct an extensive study, the study will use extensive qualitative research to extrapolate the findings of its limited research and synthesize it with the relevant literature on the subject.

1.9 Conclusion

This section has demonstrated the nature of nationalism and the challenges it poses to both individual countries and the international community. It is evident that economic concerns are the primary drivers of nationalism in the society (BBC, 2018). As a result, the study will provide an effective framework for the effective resolution of the challenges posed by increasing globalization in the modern society.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW Comment by Angela Parham: The literature review surveys publications (books, journals and sometimes conference papers) on works that has already been done on the topic of your research paper. It should only include studies that have direct relevance to your research.

2.1 Introduction

The literature review aimed at developing a holistic understanding of nationalism and its resurgence in the modern society. As a result, past and present incidences of nationalism were examined in the research process. The findings of the study form the basis for understanding the psychology of the modern nationalist and the factors that cause it to be prevalent among different parts of the society.

2.2 Search Description

The search terms comprised of ‘nationalism’, ‘causes of nationalism’, ‘causes of Brexit’ and ‘Trumpism’. The search results produced leads that the researcher used to identify other literature material on the subject. The focused research played an important role in enabling the researcher to identify the literature that could be used in the study. In addition, the internet search involved ‘resurgence of nationalism’ and ‘nationalists’.

2.3 Theoretical Framework Comment by Angela Parham: Is this theoretical framework from a source?

Cultural factors

Patriotism

Nationalism

Social-economic factors

Political factors

Fig 1 Theoretical framework for the resurgence of nationalism

The theoretical framework demonstrates the impact that environmental factors have on the inherent patriotism of an individual. Each person has a close relationship with their nation that forms part of their identity. The cultural factors in the society may affect how people perceive others. Part of the opposition towards nationalism can be linked to cultural issues, which affect how the people perceive each other. In addition, social-economic factors may affect the sense of security that a person has about their future (Spencer & Wollman, 2005). Political actors may exploit social-economic and cultural factors to stir interest in nationalism. The resurgence of nationalism can be linked to the cultural and social-economic factors in the American society. Consequently, it is evident that the adoption of nationalism is a response to threats to the identity or survival of an individual. The push for nationalism is a reactive response to the fear and anxiety caused by the potential loss of the identity of a person (BBC, 2018).

2.4 Review of the literature

The turn of the new millennium held the hope that most countries around the world would turn away from nationalism as globalization and technological advancements created new opportunities for the young generation to interact with others. It was expected that young people would be less nationalistic than their parents would as they recognized the shared value in the connection of different cultures and societies (Helleiner, & Pickel, 2005). The political future of many communities seemed to lie in super nations such as the European Union. However, nationalism started to enjoy a large resurgence across the world as the promise of globalization failed to result in shared prosperity.

Populists from Venezuela to Poland, the United States and Britain have exploited nationalism by casting themselves as opponents of globalists. The appeal of nationalism is evident in the need to project the fears and anxiety of a people to the other (Serwer, 2017). In China, Russia and Turkey authoritarian regimes have played the nationalism card to entrench their hold on power by concentrating economic and political control in their hands. Institutions such as the European Union have found that they are being held back by the increased resistance against the centralization of decision-making authority in the society.

The latest wave of nationalism seems set to endure for a long period as changes in the world economy continue to increase anxiety over the economic viability of many communities and their members. The success of nationalism can be linked to its immense power. It plays an important role in giving people an identity in a multicultural world where immigration threatens to break down the traditional conceptualization of nation states.

The definition of a nation over the years has been anchored in common ancestry (Gans, 2003). This view is responsible for the inability of many people to accept immigrants and assimilated persons as part of them. For instance, it explains the reluctance of people to accept Muslims as capable of becoming real Britons or Germans. In spite of the increased willingness among the people to accept that people with different skin colors and ethnicity as being part of themselves, the adoption of multi-ethnic nations has always been a social experiment that was bound to face some fierce resistance from the target population. Many people are keen to hold onto their mono-ethnic identities because it aligns with what they know about the role of nationhood in their lives.

The resurgence of nationalism in Canada and the United States in spite of the countries having experienced immigration for many decades demonstrates the enduring need for mono-ethnic identities and the endurance of their rigid racial structures. The progress that has been made towards reducing the injustices and inequality caused by the societal challenges in the society has threatened those who view the concept of a nation as being synonymous with Christianity and whiteness (Sharma, 2006). Changes in the society have threatened the status of many people who relied on their race or religion to access privilege in the society. Consequently, the pushback against immigration and racial equality could be driven in large part by concerns over the impact that it will have on the privilege, which is available to members of the community (Sabato, 2017).

The association of nationalism with one ethnic group risks enhancing the tensions and inequality that have defined the society in the past. As a result, it is imperative for communities to embrace effective intervention measures to enhance their ability to reach new groups and embrace a more inclusive form of nationalism (Waldron, 2002). The approach will be integral in creating opportunities for the society to benefit from the adoption of a collective identity. Presently, nationalism evokes a negative response, which undermines the ability of the people to have an honest conversation about nationalism (Sin, 2006). It is evident that each human being has an emotional connection with their identity. In a fast-changing world, the concept of nationhood provides not only an identity, but is also an important function of the hopes and aspirations of individuals. As a result, it is important for members of the society to empathize with those who have expressed support for nationalism because they believe in one form of nationalism.

The liberal reaction to nationalism has been flawed and only served to entrench the resistance of some groups against globalization. The view involves recognition of the inherent weakness in the continued attempt to encourage the power to abandon any collective identity in favor of transcending tribal allegiances (Brubaker, 1997). The approach fails to recognize the need for identity in a rapidly changing world. Nationalism has achieved a lot of power by expanding the circle of sympathy among a people who are concerned over their place in a rapidly changing world (Miščević, 2000). Globalists have contributed towards the rise of globalization by failing to recognize the adverse effects of globalization. However, it fails to recognize the impact that such a system has on the individual persons who are forced to compete with cheaper labor from around the world. As a result, nationalism has a flawed overall strategy but a more compassionate individual framework while universalism has a holistic and open overall strategy but fails to account for the needs of individual persons (Lomnitz-Adler, 2001).

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