1. Your friend says that what makes one element distinct from another is the number of electrons about the atomic nucleus. Do you agree wholeheartedly, partially, or not at all? Explain
2.The atoms that constitute your body are mostly empty space, and structures such as the chair you’re sitting on are composed of atoms that are also mostly empty space. So why don’t you fall through the chair?
3 Your friend says that the primary difference between a solid and a liquid is the kind of atoms in the material. Do you agree or disagree, and why?
4 Why is it easier to start a fire with kindling rather than with large sticks and logs of the same kind of wood?
5.Why is blood pressure measured in the upper arm, at the elevation of your heart?
6. A balloon is weighted so that it is barely able to float in water. If it is pushed beneath the surface, will it return to the surface, stay at the depth to which it is pushed, or sink? Explain.
(Hint: Does the balloon’s density change?)
7. When an air bubble rises in water, what happens to its mass, volume, and density?
8. Why does the weight of an object in air differ from its weight in a vacuum (remembering that weight is the force exerted against a supporting surface)? Cite an example in which this would be an important consideration.
9.In a glass of water at room temperature, do all the molecules have the same speed?
10.Which has the greater amount of internal energy—an iceberg or a cup of hot coffee? Defend your answer.
11.On a cold day, why does a metal doorknob feel colder than the wooden door?
12.Your friend states that the average speed of all hydrogen and nitrogen molecules in a gas is the same. Do you agree or disagree, and why?
13.Place a jar of water on a small stand within a saucepan of water so that the bottom of the jar is held above the bottom of the pan. When the pan is placed on a stove, the water in the pan will boil, but not the water in the jar. Why?
14. Why does the water in a car radiator sometimes boil explosively when the radiator cap is removed?
15.On a chilly 10°C day, your friend who loves cold weather says she wishes it were twice as cold. Taking this literally, show that the temperature she wishes for would be -131.5°C.
16. Imagine a giant dry-cleaner’s bag full of air at a temperature of -35°C floating like a balloon with a string hanging from it 10 km above the ground. Estimate what its temperature would be if you were able to yank it suddenly back to Earth’s surface.