Manual for

Anatomy &


Connie Allen

Valerie Harper


Start Here, Go Anywhere.

I dedicate this book to my new granddaughters, Gianna Leigh Madden and Taralyn Kay Thomas. —Connie Allen

I dedicate this book to my husband Chuck, who has supported and encouraged me, my children Scott and Kate, who were patient when I worked long hours, and my nieces Jessica and Kristina Fatigati,

who are interested in studying anatomy. —Valerie Harper

5th E D I T I O N

Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology

CONNIE ALLEN Edison State College

VALERIE HARPER Colorado Mesa University


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The procedures in this text are intended for use only by students with appropriate faculty supervision. In preparing the text, care has been taken to iden- tify potentially hazardous steps and to insert safety precautions where appropriate. The authors and publisher believe the procedures to be useful tools if performed with the materials and equipment specifi ed, in careful accordance with the instructions and methods in the text. However, these procedures must be conducted at one’s own risk. The author and publisher do not warrant or guarantee the safety of individuals using these procedures and specifi – cally disclaim any and all liability resulting directly or indirectly from the use or application of any information contained in this book.

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Anatomy and physiology is a challenging course, and this laboratory manual is written to help students meet that challenge. It is written for students interested in allied health fields, such as nursing; physical, respiratory, cardiovascular, or occupational therapy; radiology; and den- tal hygiene. This manual may be used with any two-semester anatomy and physiology textbook.

The design of this laboratory manual is based on the au- thors’ experience as anatomy and physiology instructors and uses three learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. When students label diagrams, they focus on the structure rather than just the dot at the end of a line. Writing out the structure’s name and pronouncing it reinforces learning. Also, having students become subjects of laboratory exer- cises personalizes the learning process. Animal dissections give students an opportunity to physically manipulate struc- tures, comparing location and texture, and to observe how structures are supported, protected, and attached by connec- tive tissue.

Special features incorporated in this laboratory manual include:

• This lab manual can be used for online anatomy and physi- ology classes. New lab activities have been added that can be performed by students at home or used in the labora- tory. Online students can also use the Real Anatomy Virtual Dissection program and PowerPhys physiology activities to enhance their learning.

• Just enough text is provided to introduce concepts in each section and to set up and support the laboratory section. The exercises are written so students do not need their textbooks to complete the laboratory activities.

• New material is divided into small segments, starting with simple diagrams, illustrating the basic concepts and build- ing up to more complex diagrams. Subsequent activities add to the students’ knowledge in a stepwise fashion. This is especially noticed in the skeletal and muscular exercises.

• Each exercise contains a list of objectives, materials needed for the exercise, and easily identifiable laboratory activity sections.

• Unlabeled four-color drawings, photographs, and photomi- crographs are included for students to label either at home or in the laboratory. Students first write out the name of the structure to help learn it. Then the completed diagrams will be used to identify structures on models.

• Word derivatives for bolded terms are given in the text. • Phonetic pronunciation is included as new words are intro-


• Physiology experiments use students as subjects and can be completed with either simple, inexpensive equipment and materials or more complex lab setups.

• Experimental report sections after physiology experiments where students are asked to make predictions, collect and analyze data, and write simple lab reports.

• Discussion Questions are within the activities to make the students think about the material presented.

• An Answer Key is provided at the end of the laboratory manual for the activities in each exercise. Students receive immediate feedback, and they are not dependent on the in- structor for the correct answers.

• “Reviewing Your Knowledge” and “Using Your Knowl- edge” sections follow the activities at the end of each ex- ercise. “Reviewing Your Knowledge” provides a thorough review of the material in the exercise, whereas “Using Your Knowledge” requires students to apply information learned. Either or both of these sections may be handed in to the instructors for a grade, because neither section has answers in the back of the laboratory manual. Answers to these two sections are provided on the Instructor Companion site.

New Features to the Fifth Edition • Exercises are now organized into Before Going to Lab and

Lab Activities. Before Going to Lab sections are to be com- pleted at home or outside of class.

• Completely revised Exercise 15: Surface Anatomy and Exercise 26: Blood Components and Blood Tests.

• Suggested Real Anatomy activities are included throughout the lab manual.

• PowerPhys 3.0 is now tablet enabled and includes three new modules.

• New Biopac Laboratory Guide Experiments are available online for several Exercises. Activities include: ~ Recruitment and Fatigue ~ Isometric and Isotonic Contractions ~ Effect of Physical and Mental Distractions on Patellar

Reflex (Knee Jerk) Response ~ The Effect of Mental and Sensory Stimulations on Brain

Wave Patterns ~ Observing ANS Responses to Lying ~ Observing ANS Responses Following Meditation ~ Effect of Body Position and Exercise on ECG ~ Heart Sounds and Events of the Cardiac Cycle ~ Effect of Body Position on Resting Blood Pressure ~ Effect of Exercise on Blood Pressure ~ Effect of Exercise on Lung Volumes and Capacities ~ Comparison of Predicted and Measured FVC and FEV1


vi P R E F A C E

PowerPhys 3.0 is Tablet Enabled and Fully Integrated with The New Edition

Each Lab Manual contains online access to Power- Phys 3.0 for students. PowerPhys 3.0 is physiologi- cal simulation software for the A & P laboratory that allows students to explore physiology principles through 14 self-contained activities. Each activity follows the scientific method containing objectives with illustrated and animated review material, pre- lab quizzes, pre-lab reports (including predictions and variables), data collection and analysis, and a full lab report with discussion and application questions. Experiments contain real data that is randomly gener- ated, allowing users to experiment multiple times, but still arrive at the same conclusions. These activities focus on core physiological concepts and reinforce techniques experienced in the laboratory. www.wiley. com/go/powerphys • Three New Activities: Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Concentration and

Blood Typing

Acid-Base Balance

Effect of Dietary Fiber on Transit Time and Bile • Now available on mobile devices

Dissection Manuals • Depending on your needs, a Cat Dissection Man-

ual or Fetal Pig Dissection Manual is available to accompany the main Lab Manual. Both dissection manuals contain dissection activities for use in the lab accompanied by full color photos and figures.

• All cat and pig photographs have been updated in the new editions.

• New cat and pig dissection videos accompany this edition, available in WileyPLUS. Dissections per- formed by Shawn Miller and photographs taken by Mark Nielsen of the University of Utah.

Resources That Power Success

Anatomy Drill and Practice lets you test your knowledge of structures with simple-to-use drag and drop labeling exercises, or fill-in-the-blank labeling. You can drill and practice on these ac- tivities using illustrations from the text, cadaver photographs, histology micrographs, or anatomi- cal models, so you can practice labeling these models outside of the lab.

Anatomy Drill and Practice in

Student and Instructor Companion Websites

Resources for Students:

• Audio Glossary • Rat Dissection video • Pig Dissection video • Answers to figure questions • Interactions Review Sheets • Real Anatomy Review Sheets • Lab Safety Guidelines • Experimental Reports • Blood Activities

Resources for Instructors:

• Anatomy and Physiology Visual Library • Editable PowerPoints that include all figures from

the Lab Manual • All tables from the Lab Manual in PowerPoint • All images from the Cat Dissection Manual • All images from the Pig Dissection Manual • Answer Keys for “Reviewing Your Knowledge” • Answer Keys for “Using Your Knowledge” • Interactions Review Sheets • Real Anatomy Review Sheets


Mark Nielsen and Shawn Miller, University of Utah

Real Anatomy is 3-D imaging software that allows you to dissect through

multiple layers of a three-dimensional real human body to study and

learn the anatomical structures of all body systems.

Real Anatomy 2.0

• Now available on the Web, acces- sible by iPad and Android tablets.

• All possible highlight structures on an image are now accessible via a drop-down list as well as being searchable.

NEW to Real Anatomy 2.0

• New crumb trail navigation shows context of system, image, structure.

• Fully integrated into WileyPLUS for Anatomy.

• Dissect through up to 40 layers of the body and discover the relationships of the structures to the whole.

• Rotate the body as well as major organs to view the image from multiple perspectives.

• Use a built-in zoom feature to get a closer look at detail.

• A unique approach to highlighting and labeling struc- tures does not obscure the real anatomy on view.



Photographic Atlas of Human Anatomy, First Edition Mark Nielsen and Shawn Miller, University of Utah

This atlas, filled with outstanding photographs of me-

ticulously executed dissections of the human body, has

been developed to be a strong teaching and learning

solution, not just a catalog of photographs. Organized

around body systems, each chapter includes a narra-

tive overview of the body system followed by detailed

photographs that accurately and realistically represent

the anatomical structures. Histology is included. Pho-

tographic Atlas of Human Anatomy will work well in

your laboratories, as a study companion to your lab

manual, and as a print companion to the Real Anat-

omy DVD.

• Snapshots can be saved of any image for use in Power- Points, quizzes, or handouts

• Audio pronuncia- tion of all labeled structures is readily available

• Related Images provide mul- tiple views of structures being studied.

• Snapshots can be saved of any image for use in PowerPoints, quizzes, or handouts.

• View histology micrographs at varied levels of magnification with the virtual microscope.

• Audio pronunciation of all labeled structures is readily available.

For more information, visit

WileyPLUS builds students’ confidence because it takes the guesswork out of studying by providing students with a clear roadmap:

• what to do • how to do it • if they did it right

It offers interactive resources along with a complete digital textbook that help students learn more. With WileyPLUS, students take more initiative so you’ll have

greater impact on their achievement in the classroom and beyond.

WileyPLUS is a research-based online environment for effective teaching and learning.

Now available for


Technical Support 24/7 FAQs, online chat, and phone support

Student support from an experienced student user

Collaborate with your colleagues, find a mentor, attend virtual and live

events, and view resources

2-Minute Tutorials and all of the resources you and your students need to get started

Your WileyPLUS Account Manager, providing personal training

and support

Pre-loaded, ready-to-use assignments and presentations

created by subject matter experts

Student Partner Program

Quick Start

© Courtney Keating/iStockphoto

Acknowledgments We deeply appreciate the support, instruction, and encour- agement from the members of our editorial, production, and marketing team at Wiley: Bonnie Roesch, Lauren Elfers, Barbara Russiello, MaryAnn Price, and Maria Guarascio. We also wish to thank Gerard Tortora and Bryan Derrickson for producing a wonderful textbook that provided many illustra- tions and ideas for our laboratory manual. A special thank you to Susan Baxley for reviewing all the exercises, making suggestions and to Bob Clemence for allowing us to use his figure of the Respiratory Volumes and Capacities. A special thanks to Charles Harper for answering many clinical ques- tions. We also wish to thank Kierstan Hong at Imagineering Art for the artwork she provided for our laboratory manual.

Thank you to our colleagues at Edison State College: Bob Clemence, Colleen Swanson, Jody Gootkin, Richard McCoy,

Jeff Davis, Dick Felden, Lyman O’Neil, Kitty Gronlund, Tony Contino, Cheryl Black, Jed Wolfson, Jay Koepke, and Roy Hepner who encouraged us, answered our questions, and pro- vided critiques of exercises. We also wish to thank Nicole Yarbrough George for her critique of the skeletal muscle chapter. Thank you to Chaim Jay Margolin of Regional Radiology Associates and David Michie of Clinical Physiol- ogy Associates for providing images for this manual. Special thanks to SOMSO for providing images for our online Anat- omy Drill and Practice: Anatomical Models section. Thanks to contributors Jerri Lindsey, Tarrant County College, and Terry Thompson, Wor-Wic Community College.

WileyPLUS for Anatomy and Physiology is an innovative, research-based online environment—designed for both effec- tive teaching and learning. Utilizing WileyPLUS in your lab course provides your students with an accessible, affordable, and active learning platform and the tools and resources to efficiently build presentations for a dynamic laboratory expe- rience and to create and manage effective assessment strategies. The underlying principles of design, engagement, and mea- surable outcomes provide the foundation for this powerful, new release of WileyPLUS.

Design • New research-based design helps students manage their

time better and develop better study skills • Course Calendars help track assignments for both students

and teachers • New Course Plan makes it easier to assign pre- and post-lab

activities and assessment. Simple drag-and-drop tools make it easy to assign the course plan as-is or in any way that best reflects your course syllabus

The new design makes it easy for students to know what it is they need to do, boosting their confidence and preparing them for greater engagement in lab.

Engagement • Complete online version of the Lab Manual for seamless

integration of all content • Online version of the Lab Manual includes interactive figure

labeling exercises for students • Relevant student study tools and learning resources ensure

positive learning outcomes

• Immediate feedback boosts confidence and helps students see a return on investment for each study session

• Resources like Cadaver Videos, Anatomy Drill, and Prac- tice help students study for laboratory practicals

• Course materials, including editable PowerPoint stacks and Wiley’s Visual Library for Anatomy and Physiology, help you personalize lessons and optimize your time

Concept mastery in this discipline is directly related to stu- dents keeping up with the work and not falling behind. The new Concept Modules, Activities, Self Study, and Progress Checks in WileyPLUS will ensure that students know how to study effectively so they will remain engaged and stay on task.

Measurable Outcomes • Progress check enables students to hone in on areas of

weakness for increased success • Self-assessment and remediation for all learning objectives

lets students know exactly how their efforts have paid off • Instant reports monitor trends in class performance, use of

course materials, and student progress towards learning objectives

• New gradable versions of the PowerPhys 2.0 laboratory re- ports allow you to assign and grade these within WileyPLUS

With new detailed reporting capabilities students will know that they are doing it right. With increased confidence, motiva- tion is sustained so students stay on task, and success will fol- low. Please contact your Wiley representative for details about these and other resources or visit our website at www.wiley. com/college/sc/aandp and click on the laboratory text cover to explore the assets more fully.

WileyPLUS and You


E X E R C I S E 5   T R A N S P O R T A C R O S S T H E P L A S M A M E M B R A N E 43

Contents Preface

INTRODUCTION EXERCISE 1 Anatomical Language 1

EXERCISE 2 Organ Systems and Body Cavities 13

CELL AND TISSUES EXERCISE 3 Compound Light Microscope 23

EXERCISE 4 Cell Structure and Cell Cycle 31

EXERCISE 5 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 41

EXERCISE 6 Tissues 51

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM EXERCISE 7 The Integumentary System Structure and

Function 83

SKELETAL SYSTEM AND JOINTS EXERCISE 8 Bone Structure and Function 95

EXERCISE 9 Axial Skeleton 105

EXERCISE 10 Appendicular Skeleton 137

EXERCISE 11 Joints and Synovial Joint Movements 159


EXERCISE 13 Contraction of Skeletal Muscle 185

EXERCISE 14 Skeletal Muscles and Their Actions 197



EXERCISE 17 Spinal Cord Structure and Function 269

EXERCISE 18 Spinal Nerves 279

EXERCISE 19 Somatic Reflexes 289

EXERCISE 20 Brain Structure and Function 299

EXERCISE 21 Cranial Nerves 323

EXERCISE 22 Autonomic Nervous System Structure and Function 333

EXERCISE 23 General Senses 345 EXERCISE 24 Special Senses 359

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM EXERCISE 25 Endocrine Structure and Function 391

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM EXERCISE 26 Blood Components and Blood Tests 411

EXERCISE 27 Heart Structure and Function 431

EXERCISE 28 Cardiac Cycle 451

EXERCISE 29 Blood Vessel Structure and Function 463

EXERCISE 30 Blood Vessel Identification 479

LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS EXERCISE 31 Lymphatic System Structure and Immune

System Function 507

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM EXERCISE 32 Respiratory System Structure and Function 527

EXERCISE 33 Pulmonary Ventilation 545

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM EXERCISE 34 Digestive System Structure and Function 561

EXERCISE 35 Mechanical and Chemical Digestion 589

URINARY SYSTEM EXERCISE 36 Urinary System Structure and Function 597

EXERCISE 37 Urine Formation and Urinalysis 615

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS EXERCISE 38 Male Reproductive System Structure and

Function 627

EXERCISE 39 Female Reproductive System Structure and Function 643


EXERCISE 41 Heredity 675

Answer Key to Activities 689

APPENDIX A: Word Roots 709

APPENDIX B: Skeletal Muscle Origins and Insertions 711

APPENDIX C: Measurements 717

Photo Credits 719

Index 721


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E X E R C I S E 1 A N AT O M I C A L L A N G U A G E 1

Anatomical terms describe body positions, body regions, specific body areas, and land-marks. Most of these words are derived from Latin or Greek and are often part of the names of muscles, bones, nerves, and blood vessels. Learning these terms at this time will help you throughout the course.

A. Anatomical Terms

The anatomical position is the reference position anato- mists and people in medical fi elds use to describe the loca- tion of body parts or regions. In the anatomical position, the body is erect (vertical) and facing forward; the arms are straight and at the sides of the body with the palms facing forward; the legs are straight with the feet facing forward and fl at (Figure 1.1). In the supine position, the body is horizontal and lying on the back. In the prone position, the body is horizontal and lying on the stomach. Body regions refer to specifi c areas of the body. There are common misperceptions about the boundaries of a few body regions. Two common misconceptions are that the arm is the area between the shoulder and wrist and that the leg includes the

thigh. Actually, the arm is located between the shoulder and elbow, and the forearm is located from the elbow to wrist. The thigh is located between the groin and knee, and the leg is located between the knee and ankle. The chest is the area of the trunk between the neck and diaphragm and contains the heart and lungs. The abdomen is the area of the trunk between the diaphragm and hip bones and contains the digestive organs. The pelvis is the area of the trunk below the hip bones and contains internal reproductive organs and the urinary bladder. The groin is the area on the anterior (front) surface marked by a crease where the lower limb attaches to the pelvis. Many anatomical terms have one or more word roots with a prefi x and/or a suffi x added. For example, in the word antecubital, ante- is a prefi x meaning before or in front of, the word root cubit- means elbow, -al is a suffi x meaning pertaining to. Table 1.1 contains anatomical terms with four different suffi xes, all of which mean pertaining to. These suffi xes are -al, -ic, -ar, and -ary. When suffi xes like these are added to word roots they form adjectives, whereas nouns have different endings such as -um, -us, -is, and -a. For example, stern- is a word root meaning chest; sternum is the noun and sternal is the adjective. Anatomi- cal terms and their defi nitions are found in Table 1.1. Word roots and their defi nitions are found in Appendix A, as well as nouns and adjectives formed from the word roots.

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