Lucy Jane Hood, RN, PhD Professor and Department Chair, Pre-Licensure Nursing Education MidAmerica Nazarene University Olathe, Kansas

Professor Emeritus Saint Luke’s College of Health Sciences Kansas City, Missouri


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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Hood, Lucy J., author. Title: Leddy & Pepper’s professional nursing / Lucy Jane Hood. Other titles: Leddy & Pepper’s conceptual bases of professional nursing |

Leddy and Pepper’s professional nursing | Professional nursing Description: Ninth edition. | Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer, [2018] |

Preceded by Leddy & Pepper’s conceptual bases of professional nursing / Lucy Jane Hood. Edition 8. 2014. | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017020451 | ISBN 9781496351364 Subjects: | MESH: Nursing Theory | Nursing–trends Classification: LCC RT41 | NLM WY 86 | DDC 610.73–dc23 LC record available at

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To all professional nurses who have a passion for nursing that enables them to share their values, beliefs, and skills to make differences in the lives of others and to shape the nursing profession. To Dr. Susan Leddy and Dr. Mae Pepper, who saw the need for a textbook to meet the needs of registered nurses who were continuing their education. To all the readers of this text who have the courage to take the risk of returning to school or pursuing a professional nursing career. To the following persons whose actions, values, and beliefs enabled me to live out my dream of being a professional nurse: my parents, Bob and Helen Chamberlin; Mary Belle Hickey, RN, my first nurse manager, who always challenged me to be the best possible nurse and gave me the confidence to pursue higher education; my dear mentor, Dr. Susan Leddy, professor of nursing who showed me the essence of nursing scholarship; and my loving husband, Michael, who selflessly gives me the time, support, and humor to live out my dreams.



In Memory

J. Mae Pepper January 18, 1936–March 19, 1997 For 20 years, Mae was Susan Leddy’s colleague, coauthor, mentor, and friend. In 1977, Mae joined the faculty at Mercy College in Dobbs Ferry, New York. Mae’s previous teaching experience at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, New York University, and Bronx Community College, as well as her vision, wisdom, and dedication, was crucial to the development and accreditation of the new baccalaureate program for registered nurses and to the subsequent development of the first master’s program at the college.

Mae held the position of Chairperson of the Nursing program from 1981 until her sudden death in March 1997 from a ruptured aortic aneurysm. Although she talked for years about leaving administration in order to do more scholarly work, she continued to serve as Chair out of a sense of duty and responsibility. She was devoted to the students and faculty, and very conscientious in her service to the College and many civic and professional organizations.

Mae found time to read voraciously, listen to music, care for animals, and to enjoy outdoor white-water rafting, camping, and bird watching. She loved her garden, was a careful craftsperson in her furniture refinishing, and liked to go to garage sales and flea markets looking for collectibles. Mae had a good sense of humor and loved a good time. Devoted to her friends and family, she willingly gave time and attention to anyone who asked. She was a great listener, and her counsel was always wise and kind. Mae lived her belief in mutuality, genuineness, and respect for others.


Susan Kun Leddy February 23, 1939–February 23, 2007 For 14 years, Susan was my mentor and friend. We met in 1993 when I became a doctoral student at Widener University. Susan had a long distinguished career in nursing education. She set high academic standards for herself and also expected her students to attain them. Her favorite question posed to us was “So what?” thereby forcing us to verify the significance of what we said or wrote.

Susan earned a Bachelor of Science nursing degree from Skidmore College in New York in 1960. In 1965, she completed a master of science in nursing degree from Boston University. She completed a doctor of philosophy degree in 1973 at New York University. Never wanting to stop learning, she did postdoctoral work at Harvard University in 1985 and the University of Pennsylvania from 1996 to 1998.

During her first 4 years as a nurse educator, Susan taught in diploma schools and taught in the baccalaureate program at Columbia University before completing her doctoral studies. She and three other faculties founded the RN-BSN program at Pace University. In 1976, she was asked to do a feasibility study and generate a proposal to the state of New York to develop a new RN-to-BSN nursing program at Mercy College. As program chair, Susan and Mae Pepper both opened the program in 1977. The two of them realized the need for a textbook to meet the needs of registered nurses returning to school for baccalaureate education and co-wrote Conceptual Bases for Nursing Practice that was first published in 1981. After a trip to Wyoming, Susan became enthralled with the mountains. She moved to the state and became the first dean of the School of Nursing at the University of Wyoming in 1981. In 1984, she was appointed as the Dean of the reconstituted College of Health Sciences at the University of Wyoming. In 1988, she returned to the East Coast as the Dean of the School of Nursing at Widener University in Chester, Pennsylvania until 1993 when she gave up her administrative position to assume teaching responsibilities mainly in the doctoral program.

Susan was a prolific scholar and has many journal publications. After her retirement and while battling breast cancer, Susan continued to write. In addition to previous editions of this text, she authored Integrative Health Promotion: Conceptual Bases for Nursing Practice and Health Promotion: Mobilizing Strengths to Enhance Health, Wellness & Well-Being. Both of these books received Book of the Year Awards from the American Journal of Nursing.

Susan made time to travel and visited nearly every place in the world. She found her trips exhilarating and stimulating. She incorporated many of the ideas from her travels into her Human Energy Model. Susan also enjoyed quilting, weaving, and dabbling in watercolors. She was very energetic and always had a project to accomplish.

Susan deeply loved her daughters, Deborah and Erin, and made certain that they had what they needed to pursue successful lives. She adored her granddaughter, Katie, who always got her to laugh and smile even through some very rough times.

Susan exemplified the life of a true scholar, superb teacher, and devoted mother. It is my hope to live up to the standards of my beloved mentor and friend. I miss her great words of wisdom and support.



Karen D. Wiegman, PhD, MSN, RN Dean, School of Nursing and Health Science, Professor MidAmerica Nazarene University

Olathe, Kansas



Elizabeth W. Black, MSN, RN Assistant Professor Gwynedd Mercy University Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania

Billie Blake, RN, MSN, BSN, EdD, CNE (Retired) Associate Dean of Nursing St. Johns River State College Orange Park, Florida

Laura Blank, RN, MSN Associate Clinical Professor Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona

Annie Boucher, RN, MScN Professor Cambrian College Sudbury, Canada

Mary Boylston, EdD, MSN, BSN, AHN-BC Assistant Professor Eastern University St. Davids, Pennsylvania

Beryl K. Broughton, MSN, CRNP, CS, CNE Nursing Faculty ARIA Health School of Nursing Trevose, Pennsylvania

Jennifer Bryer, PhD Acting Assistant Dean, Chairperson, Associate Professor Farmingdale State College Farmingdale, New York

Kathy Burlingame, EdD, MSN, RN Dean of Nursing Galen College of Nursing Louisville, Kentucky

Paula Byrne, DNP, RN Assistant Professor and Chair The College of St. Scholastica Duluth, Minnesota

Ruth Chaplen, DNP, MSN, BSN Associate Professor Rochester College Rochester Hills, Michigan

Betty Daniels, PhD, RN Assistant Professor Brenau University Gainesville, Georgia


Karen Davis, DNP, RN, CNE Clinical Assistant Professor University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, Arkansas

Lori A. Edwards, DrPH, MPH, RN, PHCNS-BC Assistant Professor, Associate Director for Global Occupational Health University of Maryland Baltimore, Maryland

Marcus M. Gaut, DNP, RN Assistant Professor The University of Southern Mississippi Hattiesburg, Mississippi

Evalyn J. Gossett, MSN, RN Lecturer Indiana University Northwest Gary, Indiana

Debra Kantor, PhD, RN Associate Professor Molloy College Rockville Centre, New York

Coleen Kumar, PhD, RN Dean of Nursing SUNY Downtown Medical Centre College of Nursing Brooklyn, New York

Kathleen M. Lamaute, EdD, MS, FNP-BC, NEA-BC, CNE Associate Professor Molloy College Rockville Centre, New York

Debra Lee, PhD, BSN, RN Assistant Professor, Dean of School of Nursing and Health Sciences Malone University Canton, Ohio

Rosemary Macy, PhD, RN, CNE, CHSE Associate Professor Boise State University Boise, Idaho

Kari Mardian, MEd, BN, RN Instructor Medicine Hat College Medicine Hat, Canada

Tammie McCoy, BA, BSN, MSN, PhD Professor/Chair Mississippi University for Women Columbus, Mississippi

Valerie O’Dell, DNP, RN, CNE Associate Professor/MSN Program Director Youngstown University Youngstown, Ohio

Teresa O’Neill, PhD, APRN, RNC


Distance Education Coordinator, Professor Emerita University of Holy Cross New Orleans, Louisiana

Cheryl Passel, PhD Assistant Professor Marian University Fond du Lac, Wisconsin

JoAnne Pearce, MS RNC, APRN-BC Assistant Professor Idaho State University Pocatello, Idaho

Theresa T. Quell, PhD, RN Assistant Dean for Academic Programs Fairfield University Norwalk, Connecticut

Janet Reagor, RN, PhD Interim Dean, Assistant Professor Avila University Kansas City, Missouri

Debra Simons, PhD, RN, CNE, CHSE, CCM Associate Dean College of New Rochelle New Rochelle, New York

Diane Spoljoric, PhD, RNC, FNP Associate Professor Purdue Northwest Westville, Indiana

Nancy Steffen, MSN Instructor Century College White Bear Lake, Minnesota

Alicia Stone, PhD, MS, RN, FNP Professor Molloy College Rockville Centre, New York

Wendy Wheeler, RN, BScN, MN Continuous Nursing Faculty Red Deer College Red Deer, Canada

Sylvia K. Wood, DNP, APRN, ANP-BC Assistant Professor St. Joseph’s College Brooklyn, New York

Ronda Yoder, PhD, ARNP Faculty Pensacola Christina College Pensacola, Florida

Karen Zapko, PhD, CNS, MSN, RN Assistant Professor


Kent State University at Salem Salem, Ohio

Tamara Zurakowski, PhD Clinical Associate Professor Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, Virginia


About the Author

Lucy Hood, PhD, RN is the daughter of an American auto worker. She graduated from St. Luke’s Hospital of Kansas City Diploma Nursing School. She returned to school and earned a BSN from Webster College (now Webster University), an MSN from UMKC, and a PhD in Nursing from Widener University, Chester, Pennsylvania. With 14 years of experience in the areas of medical-surgical and neuroscience nursing, she embarked on a career in nursing education. Dr. Hood currently serves as the Department Chair, Pre- Licensure Nursing Education in the School of Nursing and Health Sciences at MidAmerica Nazarene University in Olathe, Kansas. Prior to her current position, she has more than 25 years of teaching experience in traditional undergraduate, RN to BSN, and graduate nursing programs at Saint Luke’s College of Health Sciences in Kansas City, Missouri and MidAmerica Nazarene University. She also has taught in the Clinical Pastoral Education Program at St. Luke’s Hospital of Kansas City. Professional nursing activities include membership in the ANA, MONA, ONS, NLN, and AANN. She has been a member of the MONA Advocacy Committee which involves political activism. She is a volunteer musician for St. Margaret of Scotland Catholic Church. Currently, she and her husband enjoy antiquing, gardening, and caring for their dachshund, Yoda.



In the early 1980s, Susan Leddy and Mae Pepper realized the need for a professional development textbook for registered nurses who were returning to school to earn baccalaureate degrees in nursing. This edition builds on the previous contributions that Leddy and Pepper made in earlier editions of Professional Nursing. So that the memory of Susan Leddy and May Pepper will continue, their names have appeared as part of the book title since 2003.

I express my sincere appreciation to the following persons for their creativity and attention to detail during the revision process: Christina Burns, Senior Acquisitions Editor; Dan Reilly, Associate Development Editor; Amberly Hyden, Editorial Coordinator; Jennifer Clements, Art Director; Holly McLaughlin, Design Coordinator; and Karan Singh Rana and the Production Team staff. A special note of thanks to Dr. Cheryl Stetler for permission to reproduce the Stetler Model of Evidence-Based Practice.



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