·         1. A 40-year-old woman who experiences severe seasonal allergies has been referred by her family physician to an allergist for weekly allergy injections. The woman is confused as to why repeated exposure to substances that set off her allergies would ultimately benefit her. Which of the following phenomena best captures the rationale for allergy desensitization therapy? (Points : 0.4)

Repeated exposure to offending allergens binds the basophils and mast cells that mediate the allergic response.
Exposure to allergens in large, regular quantities overwhelms the IgE antibodies that mediate the allergic response.
Repeated exposure stimulates adrenal production of epinephrine, mitigating the allergic response.
Injections of allergens simulate production of IgG, which blocks antigens from combining with IgE.


Question 2.2. A 24-year-old woman presents with fever and painful, swollen cervical lymph nodes. Her blood work indicates neutrophilia with a shift to the left. She most likely has: (Points : 0.4)

A mild parasitic infection
A severe bacterial infection
A mild viral infection
A severe fungal infection


Question 3.3. A 60-year-old male patient with an acute viral infection is receiving interferon therapy. The nurse practitioner is teaching the family of the patient about the diverse actions of the treatment and the ways that it differs from other anti-infective therapies. Which of the following teaching points should the nurse practitioner exclude? (Points : 0.4)

“Interferon can help your father’s unaffected cells adjacent to his infected cells produce antiviral proteins that limit the spread of the infection.”
“Interferon can help limit the replication of the virus that’s affecting your father.”
“Interferon helps your father’s body recognize infected cells more effectively.”
“Interferon can bolster your father’s immune system by stimulating natural killer cells that attack viruses.”


Question 4.4. As part of his diagnostic workup, a 77-year-old man’s nurse practitioner has ordered blood work that includes ferritin levels. The man is very interested in the details of his health care and is unfamiliar with ferritin and its role. He asks his nurse practitioner to explain the significance of it and the rationale for testing it. Which of the following explanations by the nurse practitioner is most accurate? (Points : 0.4)

“Ferritin is the activated and usable form of iron that your red blood cells can use to transport oxygen.”

“Ferritin is a stored form of iron that indirectly shows me whether you would benefit from iron pills.”
“Ferritin is a protein-iron complex that allows your red blood cells to make use of the iron that you consume in your diet.”
“Ferritin is the form of iron that is transported in your blood plasma to the red blood cells that need it.”


Question 5.5. A 16-year-old female has been brought to her primary care nurse practitioner by her mother due to the girl’s persistent sore throat and malaise. Which of the following facts revealed in the girl’s history and examination would lead the nurse practitioner to rule out infectious mononucleosis? (Points : 0.4)

The girl has a temperature of 38.1°C (100.6°F) and has enlarged lymph nodes.
Her liver and spleen are both enlarged.
Blood work reveals an increased white blood cell count.
Chest auscultation reveals crackles in her lower lung fields bilaterally.


Question 6.6. Which of the following patients is most likely to benefit from transplantation of thymic tissue or major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-compatible bone marrow? (Points : 0.4)

A 12-year-old girl with a history of epilepsy and low IgG levels secondary to phenytoin use
A 7-year-old boy whose blood work indicates decreased IgA and IgG with increased IgM
A 6-year-old boy whose pre-B cells are incapable of translation to normal B cells
A 9-year-old girl who has a diagnosis of IgA deficiency


Question 7.7. A 14-year-old boy has been diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. Which of the following pathophysiological phenomena is most responsible for his symptoms? (Points : 0.4)

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is lysing many of the boy’s neutrophils.
Viruses are killing some of his B cells and becoming incorporated into the genomes of others.
The EBV inhibits the maturation of white cells within his peripheral lymph nodes.
The virus responsible for mononucleosis inhibits the maturation of myeloblasts into promyelocytes.


Question 8.8. A 23-year-old man has received a recent diagnosis of appendicitis following 24 hours of acute abdominal pain. The nurse practitioner providing care for the man is explaining that while it is unpleasant, the inflammation of his appendix is playing a role in his body’s fight against the underlying infectious process. Which of the following teaching points should the nurse practitioner eliminate from his teaching for the patient? (Points : 0.4)

“Inflammation can help to remove the body tissue cells that have been damaged by infection.”
“Inflammation will start your body on the path to growing new, healthy tissue at the site of infection.
“Inflammation helps your body to produce the right antibodies to fight the infection.”
“Inflammation ultimately aids in eliminating the initial cause of the cell injury in your appendix.”


Question 9.9. A 71-year-old male patient with a history of myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease has been advised by his nurse practitioner to begin taking 81 mg aspirin once daily. Which of the following statements best captures an aspect of the underlying rationale for the nurse practitioner’s suggestion? (Points : 0.4)

Platelet aggregation can be precluded through inhibition of prostaglandin production by aspirin.
Aspirin helps to inhibit adenosine disphosphate (ADP) action and minimizes platelet plug formation.
Aspirin can reduce unwanted platelet adhesion by inhibiting thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthesis.
Aspirin inhibits the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin and consequent platelet plug formation.


Question 10.10. A nurse practitioner is explaining to a 40-year-old male patient the damage that Mycobacterium tuberculosis could do to lung tissue. Which of the following phenomena would underlie the nurse practitioner’s explanation? (Points : 0.4)

Tissue destruction results from neutrophil deactivation.
Nonspecific macrophage activity leads to pulmonary tissue destruction and resulting hemoptysis.
Macrophages are unable to digest the bacteria, resulting in immune granulomas.
Neutrophils are ineffective against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.


Question 11.11. A 2-year-old girl has had repeated ear and upper respiratory tract infections since she was born. A pediatrician has determined a diagnosis of transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. What is the physiological origin of the child’s recurrent infections? (Points : 0.4)

Antibody production by plasma cells is compromised because of impaired communication between B and T cells.
The child had a congenital absence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and her body is only slowly beginning to produce them independently.
The child was born with immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin (IgM) antibodies, suggesting intrauterine infection.
The child lacks the antigen presenting cells integral to normal B-cell antibody production.


Question 12.12. A nurse practitioner is teaching her colleagues about the role of cytokines in a variety of pathologies. Which of the following teaching points best captures an aspect of the functions and nature of cytokines? (Points : 0.4)

“A particular cytokine can have varied effects on different systems, a fact that limits their therapeutic use.”
“Cytokine production is constant over time, but effects are noted when serum levels cross a particular threshold.”
“Most cytokines are produced by granular leukocytes, and different cells are capable of producing the same cytokine.”
* “Cytokine actions are self-limiting in that activation of one precludes activation of other cytokines with similar actions.”


Question 13.13. A child has been diagnosed with thalassemia. Which of the following other health problems is the child at risk for? (Points : 0.4)

Iron and ferritin deficiencies
Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly


Question 14.14. A 44-year-old female patient presents to the emergency department with abnormal bleeding and abdominal pain that is later attributed to gallbladder disease. Which of the following diagnoses would the medical team be most justified in suspecting as a cause of the patient’s bleeding? (Points : 0.4)

Calcium deficiency
Vitamin K deficiency
Hemophilia B
Idiopathic ITP


Question 15.15. A 22-year-old female who adheres to a vegan diet has been diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Which of the following components of her diagnostic blood work would be most likely to necessitate further investigation? (Points : 0.4)

Decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit
Microcytic, hypochromic red cells
Decreased erythropoietin levels

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