Nursing

HLTAAP001

RECOGNISE HEALTHY BODY SYSTEMS

LEARNER RESOURCE

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T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S

TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

COURSE INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4

ABOUT THIS GUIDE ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. ABOUT ASSESSMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………… ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

ELEMENTS AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

PERFORMANCE EVIDENCE AND KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE ……………………………………………………………………… 8

PERFORMANCE EVIDENCE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

ASSESSMENT CONDITIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

PRE-REQUISITES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

TOPIC 1 – WORK WITH INFORMATION ABOUT THE HUMAN BODY ……………………………………………………… 11

CORRECTLY USE AND INTERPRET HEALTH TERMINOLOGY THAT DESCRIBES THE NORMAL STRUCTURE,

FUNCTION AND LOCATION OF THE MAJOR BODY SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………… 11

ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11 ANATOMICAL DIVISIONS AND APPROPRIATE TERMINOLOGIES …………………………………………………………………………….. 14 THE HUMAN BODY CAVITIES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16 STANDARD ANATOMICAL POSITION: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 PRINCIPLE BODY REGIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18

MAJOR BODY SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

THE HEART ANATOMY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22 BLOOD VESSELS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

THE DERMAL OR INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

THE DIGESTIVE OR GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………….. 26

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26

THE ENDOCRINE OR GLANDULAR OR HORMONAL SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………… 27

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

MUSCLE TYPES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

NERVOUS SYSTEM ANATOMY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29 FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (MEN AND WOMEN). …………………………………………………………………………… 30

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30 THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

THE RESPIRATORY OR PULMONARY SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………. 31

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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31

THE SENSORY SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

APPLY A BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MAINTAINING A HEALTHY BODY

AND ENHANCE QUALITY OF WORK ACTIVITIES BY USING AND SHARING INFORMATION ABOUT HEALTHY

FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33

PHYSICAL HEALTH ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34 THE PHYSICAL DECLINE OF OLDER AGE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35 DIET ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 HOW DO YOU DEFINE HEALTHY EATING? …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36 WATER …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38 WHAT IS HOLISTIC HEALTH? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 EFFECTIVE HYGIENE AND CLEANLINESS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39 PERSONAL HYGIENE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40 BODY ODOUR ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40 HAND WASHING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40 BAD BREATH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41 FOOD HYGIENE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42 ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42 IMMUNISATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42 PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLNESS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44 REST/ SLEEP ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLNESS …………………………………………………………………….. 46

CORRECTLY USE AND INTERPRET INFORMATION THAT RELATES TO THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF EACH BODY SYSTEM AND OTHER STRUCTURES ……………………………………………. 48

REGIONAL GROUPS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49 INTERNAL ORGANS (BY REGION) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49 MAJOR ORGAN SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51 SUPERFICIAL ANATOMY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 52 CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53 ENDOCRINE AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53 INTEGUMENTARY AND NERVOUS SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54 HEALTH ISSUES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54

TOPIC 2 – RECOGNISE AND PROMOTE WAYS TO SUPPORT HEALTHY FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY …………… 56

REVIEW FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO MAINTENANCE OF A HEALTHY BODY …………………………………….. 56

PERSONAL HEALTH ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57 HOW TO KEEP HEALTHY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

EVALUATE HOW THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DIFFERENT BODY SYSTEMS AFFECT AND SUPPORT HEALTHY

FUNCTIONING ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65

REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66

GLOSSARY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69

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U N I T I N T R O D U C T I O N

This resource covers the unit HLTAAP001 – Recognise healthy body systems.

This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to work with basic information about the human body and to recognise and promote ways to maintain healthy functioning of the body.

This unit applies to any worker who needs to use and interpret information that includes references to client anatomy and physiology.

The skills in this unit must be applied in accordance with Commonwealth and State/Territory legislation, Australian/New Zealand standards and industry codes of practice.

ABOUT THIS RESOURCE

This resource brings together information to develop your knowledge about this unit. The information is designed to reflect the requirements of the unit and uses headings to makes it easier to follow.

Read through this resource to develop your knowledge in preparation for your assessment. You will be required to complete the assessment tools that are included in your program. At the back of the resource are a list of references you may find useful to review.

As a student it is important to extend your learning and to search out text books, internet sites, talk to people at work and read newspaper articles and journals which can provide additional learning material.

Your trainer may include additional information and provide activities. slide presentations and assessments in class to support your learning.

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ABOUT ASSESSMENT

Throughout your training we are committed to your learning by providing a training and assessment framework that ensures the knowledge gained through training is translated into practical on the job improvements.

You are going to be assessed for:

 Your skills and knowledge using written and observation activities that apply

to your workplace.

 Your ability to apply your learning.

 Your ability to recognise common principles and actively use these on the job.

You will receive an overall result of Competent or Not Yet Competent for the assessment of this unit. The assessment is a competency based assessment, which has no pass or fail. You are either competent or not yet competent. Not Yet Competent means that you still are in the process of understanding and acquiring the skills and knowledge required to be marked competent. The assessment process is made up of a number of assessment methods. You are required to achieve a satisfactory result in each of these to be deemed competent overall.

All of your assessment and training is provided as a positive learning tool. Your assessor will guide your learning and provide feedback on your responses to the assessment. For valid and reliable assessment of this unit, a range of assessment methods will be used to assess practical skills and knowledge.

Your assessment may be conducted through a combination of the following methods:

 Written Activity

 Case Study

 Observation

 Questions

 Third Party Report

The assessment tool for this unit should be completed within the specified time period following the delivery of the unit. If you feel you are not yet ready for assessment, discuss this with your trainer and assessor.

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To be successful in this unit you will need to relate your learning to your workplace. You may be required to demonstrate your skills and be observed by your assessor in your workplace environment. Some units provide for a simulated work environment and your trainer and assessor will outline the requirements in these instances.

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E L E M E N T S A N D P E R F O R M A NC E C R I T E R I A

1. Work with information about the human body

1.1 Correctly use and interpret health terminology that describes the normal structure, function and location of the major body systems

1.2 Correctly use and interpret information that relates to the interrelationships between major components of each body system and other structures

2. Recognise and promote ways to support healthy functioning of the body

2.1 Review factors that contribute to maintenance of a healthy body

2.2 Evaluate how the relationships between different body systems affect and support healthy functioning

2.3 Enhance quality of work activities by using and sharing information about healthy functioning of the body

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P E R F O R M A N C E E V I D E N C E A N D K N O W L E D G E E V I D E N C E

This describes the essential knowledge and skills and their level required for this unit.

PERFORMANCE EVIDENCE

The candidate must show evidence of the ability to complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the job role. There must be evidence that the candidate has:

 Worked effectively with information about the human body and its healthy

functioning in at least 3 different situations

KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE

The candidate must be able to demonstrate essential knowledge required to effectively complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the work role. This includes knowledge of:

 Basic structure and functions of the body systems and associated

components, including:

o Cells, tissues and organs

o Cardiovascular system

o Respiratory system

o Musculo-skeletal system

o Endocrine system

o Digestive system

o Urinary system

o Reproductive system

o Integumentary system

o Lymphatic system

o Nervous system, including sensory systems – eye and ear

o The special senses – smell, taste, vision, equilibrium and hearing

o Immune system

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 Processes, conditions and resources required by the body to support healthy

functioning:

o Body regulation including:

 Maintenance of body temperature

 Fluid and electrolyte (including PH) balance

 Elimination of wastes from the body

 Maintenance of blood pressure

o Protection from infection

o Physical activity – active and passive

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A S S E S S M E N T C O N D I T I O N S

Skills must have been demonstrated in the workplace or in a simulated environment that reflects workplace conditions. The following conditions must be met for this unit:

 Use of suitable facilities, equipment and resources, including client health

information

 Modelling of industry operating conditions, including integration of problem-

solving activities

Assessors must satisfy the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015/AQTF mandatory competency requirements for assessors

P R E – R E Q U I S I T E S

This unit must be assessed after the following pre-requisite unit:

There are no pre-requisites for this unit.

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T O P I C 1 – W O R K W I T H I N F O R M A T I O N A B O U T T H E H U M A N B O D Y

CORRECTLY USE AND INTERPRET HEALTH TERMINOLOGY THAT DESCRIBES THE NORMAL STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND

LOCATION OF THE MAJOR BODY SYSTEMS

ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY

Anatomy is the study of the body’s internal and external structures and the physical relationships between them. In the study of Anatomy, it is essential that you are able to express yourself correctly and without confusion. Anatomy uses an international language of terms which enables you to correctly convey information to health care professionals around the world, as well as scholars in basic and applied health sciences.

As health workers you need to be able to use accepted terminology for several reasons:

 Nurses, doctors, and pharmacists went to different schools and need to be

able to effectively communicate with each other without ambiguity and

confusion

 Imprecise terminology can lead to confusion or incorrect assumptions. Many

specialists and members of the health care team will process the paperwork

of a single patient during a single hospital stay. It is imperative that they all

understand what the true situation is.

 Some terms are simply not acceptable anymore. For example, it is not correct

to refer to someone as “mentally retarded” anymore. It is not acceptable to

refer to homosexuality as a “disease” anymore. This has important

implications for patient perceptions and treatment options.1

As health care workers, you work to improve, support or benefit the physical and psychological well-being of the clients you work for and meet their needs.

1 http://www.answers.com/Q/Why_is_it_necessary_that_health_workers_have_a_basic_un…

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Health care workers can, therefore, be:

 Nurses

 Nutritionists or dietitians

 Community service workers

 Medical practitioners/ advisers

 Leisure and recreational activity providers

 Councilors

 Psychologists

 Therapists

 Physical trainers

They might work in the following fields:

 Disability

 Ageing

 Alcohol and other drugs

 Education

 Palliative care

 Fitness

 Leisure and recreation

 Therapy service areas, e.g., physiotherapy, podiatry, etc.

 Children’s services

 Youth services

In most roles it is necessary for the health care worker to have at least a rudimentary understanding of a range of medical and health terminology and an understanding of the problems or issues that can impact on people’s physical and psychological health. They should understand anatomy and physiology so they can recognise body systems and their components. This will aid in identifying healthy body systems and those systems that are not functioning well.

It is necessary that health workers have a basic understanding of the fundamental principles of maintaining a healthy body, because by knowing that, they will be able to

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continue working and at same time keep a healthy body throughout their lives. But that basic information is valid not only to workers but also to everyone, from teens to elderly people.2

Health care workers will need to have basic knowledge of the human body systems:

It is important that health care workers also have an understanding of the human bodies special senses, these are – smell, taste, vision, equilibrium and hearing.

2 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_is_it_necessary_that_health_workers_have_a_basic_understanding_of_th e_fundamental_principles_of_maintaining_a_healthy_body?#slide=1

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It is important that the Healthcare worker knows the processes, conditions and resources required by the body to support healthy functioning and they will need to know what to do and who to report to if they believe that a client requires extra diagnosis and/or treatment, or if they believe that their clients health has deteriorated.

Understanding of the human anatomy starts with knowing the various sections and divisions of the body, their use and the descriptions applicable to their healthy function.

This must be done in conjunction with the use of the correct terminology for the parts and functions of the human body.

ANATOMICAL DIVISIONS AND APPROPRIATE TERMINOLOGIES

Divisions of Anatomy: Anatomy is a broad field of study consisting of several divisions or sub- disciplines. Each division of anatomy specializes on a specific aspect of the body’s arrangement.

Body Divisions: On a very basic level, the body can be divided into three main divisions;

 Body Wall: The structures forming the framework of the body, supporting and

enclosing vital organs. The skin, skeleton, and skeletal muscles are all

components of the body wall. The head, arms, and legs will be considered

specialized modifications of the body wall.

 Body Cavities: The internal spaces within the body wall are filled with the

body’s organs. The largest body cavity is the Ventral (abdominal side) Cavity.

This cavity is further divided into the Thoracic Cavity, housing the heart and

lungs, and the Abdominopelvic Cavity, housing the abdominal and pelvic

organs (stomach, liver, intestines, bladder, and reproductive structures). Body

cavities are significant because they function to protect and house the internal

organs while still allowing them the freedom of movement. The heart would be

very ineffective in pumping blood if it were housed in a solid tissue unable to

move and beat.

 Organs: Structures within the body capable of specific functions. Organs can be

found 1) contained within the body cavities (heart, liver), 2) as a component of

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the body wall (skeletal muscle, bone), or 3) transiting between the two (blood

vessels, nerves).

The human body can be divided into sections which are bilaterally symmetric:

 The head, which consists of the bony framework of the skull and contains the

cranial, nasal, and oral and orbital cavities. The head is the rostral part (from

anatomical positioning) comprising the brain, eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, all

of which aid in various sensory functions, such as sight, hearing, smell, and

taste.

 The neck is the upper section of the spinal column that distinguishes the head

from the torso or trunk. The neck supports the weight of the head and

protects the nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain

down to the rest of the body. The neck is highly flexible and allows the head

to turn and flex. It contains part of the spinal cavity and the upper parts of the

trachea and oesophagus, the thyroid gland and the parathyroid glands, the

hyoid bone, the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple), cricoid cartilage, parotid

glands and the external carotid arteries.

 The trunk or torso is the body of a human, excluding the head and limbs. The

trunk is divided into the thorax, the abdomen and the pelvis. Most critical

organs are housed within the torso and the upper chest, the heart and lungs

are protected by the rib cage. The abdomen contains the majority of organs

responsible for digestion – the liver, which produces bile necessary for

digestion; the large and small intestines, which extract nutrients from food;

the gallbladder, which stores and concentrates bile and produces chyme; the

anus, through which faecal wastes are excreted; the rectum, which stores

faeces; the ureters, which pass urine to the bladder; the bladder, which stores

urine; and the urethra, which excretes urine and passes sperm through the

seminal vesicles of the male. Finally, the pelvic region houses both the male

and female reproductive organs.

 The limbs, which attach to the trunk, consist of the upper limbs, shoulders,

arms and hands, and lower limbs, hips, legs and feet. Lower limbs are used for

locomotion, walking, running, jumping or climbing. Human legs and feet are

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specialised for two- legged locomotion. Upper limbs are used to carry and

manipulate objects. Human arms end in specialised hands capable of grasping

and fine manipulation of objects.

THE HUMAN BODY CAVITIES

The human body contains cavities – hollow spaces in the body that serve to confine organs and systems with similar functions.

 Dorsal Body Cavity: Cushions & protects the Central Nervous System (Brain &

Spinal Cord)

o Cranial Cavity: Cavity formed by the bones of the Skull; Houses the

Brain

o Spinal (Vertebral) Cavity: Cavity formed by the vertebral column;

Houses the Spinal Cord

 Ventral Body Cavity (Coelom): Enclosed by the ribs, abdominal and lumbar

musculature. Surrounds organs of the Respiratory, Digestive, Cardiovascular,

Urinary, & Reproductive systems

o Ventral Cavity is further divided into 2 cavities by the transversely

oriented Diaphragm

o Thoracic Cavity: Enclosed by the rib cage & separated from the

abdominopelvic cavity by the diaphragm.

 Right & Left Pleural Cavities: House the right & left lungs

 Pericardial Cavity: Houses the heart

o Abdominopelvic Cavity: Enclosed by the abdominal and lumbar

muscles, inferior to the diaphragm. Houses abdominal Viscera

(Organs)

 Abdominal Cavity: Separated from the inferior Pelvic cavity by

an imaginary line at the pelvic brim. Houses Digestive Organs

and Glands

 Pelvic Cavity: Separated from the superior Abdominopelvic

cavity by an imaginary line at the pelvic brim. Houses Urinary,

Reproductive, & distal portions of Digestive Systems.

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There is no definitive structure which separates Abdominal & Pelvic Cavities

Your successful study of the body’s structure will rely on your ability to not only communicate using the correct terminology and spelling but to also understand the language of directionality and organization.

STANDARD ANATOMICAL POSITION:

All descriptions of the human body are based on the assumption that the individual is standing what is known as the Standard Anatomical Position (SAP).

Standard Anatomical Position: An individual in SAP will adhere to the following positions: (see figure below)

 Stand erect

 Upper limbs are at one’s side

 Lower limbs are together

 Face, palms, and feet are directed forward

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PRINCIPLE BODY REGIONS

In your study and use of the following regional terminology, it is important to be able to communicate correctly to your colleagues and other health professionals as well as to the lay person. It is, therefore, important to learn both the anatomical term in conjunction with the common names.

Anatomical directional terms are like the directions on a compass rose of a map. Like the directions, North, South, East and West, they can be used to describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures or locations in the body. This is particularly useful when studying anatomy as it provides a common method of communication that helps to avoid confusion when identifying structures.

Terms that are used to describe the position of one body part in relation to another and which might be useful to health care workers include:

 Superior – upper or above; e.g. the lungs are superior to the diaphragm

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 Inferior – lower or below; e.g. The diaphragm is inferior to the lungs

 Anterior (ventral) – at or towards the front of the body; includes the face,

chest and abdomen

 Posterior (dorsal) – at or towards the back of the body or body part; e.g.

includes the back and buttocks

 Medial – towards the mid-line of the body – an imaginary line drawn down

the centre of the body is referred to as the median sagittal plane

 Lateral – relating to, or located at, the side of the body or body part; e.g. the

arms are lateral to the trunk

 Superficial – on or near the body surface; e.g. The skin is superficial to the

body’s internal organs

 Deep – inward or away from the body surface; e.g. the stomach is a deep

organ

 External – pertaining to the outside or outer; e.g. The epidermis is the

external layer of the skin

 Internal – pertaining to the inside or inner; e.g. The proximal interphalangeal

joints are those closest to the hand

 Distal – farthest from the centre or midline of the body, or farthest away from

any point of reference; e.g. The distal phalanges are those at the ends of the

fingers

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MAJOR BODY SYSTEMS

There are 10 systems of the human body.

1. The Circulatory or Cardiovascular System includes the heart, the blood,

and the blood vessels.

2. The Dermal or Integumentary System includes the skin, hair, and nails.

3. The Digestive or Gastrointestinal System includes the mouth, the pharynx,

the oesophagus, the stomach, the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the

small intestine, the large intestine, the rectum, and the anus.

4. The Endocrine or Glandular or Hormonal System includes all of the glands

in the body.

5. The Excretory System includes the skin, the lungs, the liver, the kidneys, and

the large intestine.

6. The Muscular System includes all of the muscles and tendons of the body.

7. The Nervous System includes the brain, the spinal cord, and all of the nerves

of the body.

8. The Reproductive System is different in men and women. The Male

Reproductive System mainly includes the testes and the penis. The Female

Reproductive System mainly includes the ovaries and the uterus.

9. The Respiratory or Pulmonary System includes the nose, the mouth, the

pharynx, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchial tubes, and the lungs.

10. The Skeletal System includes all of the bones, joints, ligaments, and tendons

of the body. 3

There are 3 sub-systems of the Circulatory or Cardiovascular System.

 The Immune System includes all of the lymphocytes and antibodies of the

body.

 The Lymphatic System includes the tonsils, the thymus gland, the liver, the

spleen, and all of the lymph nodes of the body.

3 http://www.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_four_major_systems_of_the_body

http://www.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_four_major_systems_of_the_body
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 The Urinary System includes the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, and the

urethra.

There is 1 sub-system of the Nervous System.

 The Sensory System includes the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, and the

skin.

We are going to look at each of those systems more closely.

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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the approximately 5 litres of blood that the blood vessels transport. Responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body, the cardiovascular system is powered by the body’s hardest-working organ — the heart, which is only about the size of a closed fist. Even at rest, the average heart easily pumps over 5 litres of blood throughout the body every minute.4

THE HEART ANATOMY

The heart is a muscular pumping organ located medial to the lungs along the body’s midline in the thoracic region. The bottom tip of the heart, known as its apex, is turned to the left so that about 2/3 of the heart is located on the body’s left side with the other 1/3 on right. The top of the heart, known as the heart’s base, connects to the great blood vessels of the body: the aorta, vena cava, pulmonary trunk, and pulmonary veins.

Circulatory Loops There are 2 primary circulatory loops in the human body: the pulmonary circulation loop and the systemic circulation loop.

1. Pulmonary circulation transports deoxygenated blood from the right side of

the heart to the lungs, where the blood picks up oxygen and returns to the

left side of the heart. The pumping chambers of the heart that support the

pulmonary circulation loop are the right atrium and right ventricle.

2. Systemic circulation carries highly oxygenated blood from the left side of

the heart to all of the tissues of the body (with the exception of the heart and

lungs). Systemic circulation removes wastes from body tissues, and returns

deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart. The left atrium and left

ventricle of the heart are the pumping chambers for the systemic circulation

loop.5

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BLOOD VESSELS

Blood vessels are the body’s highways that allow blood to flow quickly and efficiently from the heart to every region of the body and back again. The size of blood vessels corresponds with the amount of blood that passes through the vessel. All blood vessels contain a hollow area called the lumen through which blood is able to flow. Around the lumen is the wall of the vessel, which may be thin in the case of capillaries or very thick in the case of arteries.

All blood vessels are lined with a thin layer of simple squamous epithelium known as the endothelium that keeps blood cells inside of the blood vessels and prevents clots from forming. The endothelium lines the entire circulatory system, all the way to the interior of the heart, where it is called the endocardium.

There are three major types of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins. Blood vessels are often named after either the region of the body through which they carry blood or for nearby structures. For example, the brachiocephalic artery carries blood into the brachial (arm) and cephalic (head) regions. One of its branches, the subclavian artery, runs under the clavicle; hence the name subclavian. The subclavian artery runs into the axillary region where it becomes known as the axillary artery.

 Arteries and Arterioles: Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from

the heart. Blood carried by arteries is usually highly oxygenated, having just left

the lungs on its way to the body’s tissues. The pulmonary trunk and arteries of

the pulmonary circulation loop provide an exception to this rule – these arteries

carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated.

 Capillaries: Capillaries are the smallest and thinnest of the blood vessels in the

body and also the most common. They can be found running throughout almost

every tissue of the body and border the edges of the body’s vascular tissues.

Capillaries connect to arterioles on one end and venules on the other.

 Capillaries carry blood very close to the cells of the tissues of the body in order

to exchange gases, nutrients, and waste products. The walls of capillaries

consist of only a thin layer of endothelium so that there is the minimum amount

of structure possible between the blood and the tissues. The endothelium acts as

a filter to keep blood cells inside of the vessels while allowing liquids, dissolved

gases, and other chemicals to diffuse along their concentration gradients into or

out of tissues.

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 Veins and Venules: Veins are the large return vessels of the body and act as the

blood return counterparts of arteries. Because the arteries, arterioles, and

capillaries absorb most of the force of the heart’s contractions, veins and

venules are subjected to very low blood pressures. This lack of pressure allows

the walls of veins to be much thinner, less elastic, and less muscular than the

walls of arteries.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY

The cardiovascular system has three major functions: transportation of materials, protection from pathogens, and regulation of the body’s homeostasis.

 Transportation: The cardiovascular system transports blood to almost all of

the body’s tissues. The blood delivers essential nutrients and oxygen and

removes wastes and carbon dioxide to be processed or removed from the body.

Hormones are transported throughout the body via the blood’s liquid plasma.

 Protection: The cardiovascular system protects the body through its white

blood cells. White blood cells clean up cellular debris and fight pathogens that

have entered the body. Platelets and red blood cells form scabs to seal wounds

and prevent pathogens from entering the body and liquids from leaking out.

Blood also carries antibodies that provide specific immunity to pathogens that

the body has previously been exposed to or has been vaccinated against.

 Regulation: The cardiovascular system is instrumental in the body’s ability to

maintain homeostatic control of several internal conditions. Blood vessels help

maintain a stable body temperature by controlling the blood flow to the surface

of the skin. Blood vessels near the skin’s surface open during times of

overheating to allow hot blood to dump its heat into the body’s surroundings. In

the case of hypothermia, these blood vessels constrict to keep blood flowing only

to vital organs in the body’s core. Blood also helps balance the body’s pH due to

the presence of bicarbonate ions, which act as a buffer solution. Finally, the

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albumins in blood plasma help to balance the osmotic concentration of the

body’s cells by maintaining an isotonic environment.6

THE DERMAL OR INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

The integumentary system is an organ system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands. The skin is only a few millimetres thick yet is by far the largest organ in the body. The average person’s skin weighs 10 pounds and has a surface area of almost 20 square feet. The skin forms the body’s outer covering and forms a barrier to protect the body from chemicals, disease, UV light, and physical damage. Hair and nails extend from the skin to reinforce the skin and protect it from environmental damage. The exocrine glands of the integumentary system produce sweat, oil, and wax to cool, protect, and moisturize the skin’s surface.7

The purpose of the Integumentary System is:

 Temperature Homeostasis

 Vitamin D Synthesis

 Protection

 Skin Colour

 Cutaneous Sensation

 Excretion

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THE DIGESTIVE OR GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. In addition to the alimentary canal, there are several important accessory organs that help your body to digest food but do not have food pass through them. Accessory organs of the digestive system include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. To achieve the goal of providing energy and nutrients to the body, six major functions take place in the digestive system:

 Ingestion

 Secretion

 Mixing and movement

 Digestion

 Absorption

 Excretion8

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY

The digestive system is responsible for taking whole foods and turning them into energy and nutrients to allow the body to function, grow, and repair itself. The six primary processes of the digestive system include:

 Ingestion of food

 Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes

 Mixing and movement of food and wastes through the body

 Digestion of food into smaller pieces

 Absorption of nutrients

 Excretion of wastes

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THE ENDOCRINE OR GLANDULAR OR HORMONAL SYSTEM

The endocrine system includes all of the glands of the body and the hormones produced by those glands. The glands are controlled directly by stimulation from the nervous system as well as by chemical receptors in the blood and hormones produced by other glands. By regulating the functions of organs in the body, these glands help to maintain the body’s homeostasis. Cellular metabolism, reproduction, sexual development, sugar and mineral homeostasis, heart rate, and digestion are among the many processes regulated by the actions of hormones.9

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The endocrine system works alongside the nervous system to form the control systems of the body. The nervous system provides a very fast and narrowly targeted system to turn on specific glands and muscles throughout the body. The endocrine system, on the other hand, is much slower acting but has very widespread, long-lasting, and powerful effects. Hormones are distributed by glands through the bloodstream to the entire body, affecting any cell with a receptor for a particular hormone. Most hormones affect cells in several organs or throughout the entire body, leading to many diverse and powerful responses. 10

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THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from an organism, so as to help maintain homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body. It is responsible for the elimination of the waste products of metabolism as well as other liquid and gaseous wastes, as urine and as a component of sweat and exhalation. As most healthy functioning organs produce metabolic and other wastes, the entire organism depends on the function of the system; however, only the organs specifically for the excretion process are considered a part of the excretory system.

As it involves several functions that are only superficially related, it is not usually used in more formal classifications of anatomy or function. 11

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body. Attached to the bones of the skeletal system are about 700 named muscles that make up roughly half of a person’s body weight. Each of these muscles is a discrete organ constructed of skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, tendons, and nerves. Muscle tissue is also found inside of the heart, digestive organs, and blood vessels. In these organs, muscles serve to move substances throughout the body.12

MUSCLE TYPES

There are three types of muscle tissue: Visceral, cardiac, and skeletal.

 Visceral Muscle. Visceral muscle is found inside of organs like the stomach,

intestines, and blood vessels.

Cardiac Muscle. Found only in the heart, cardiac muscle is responsible for

pumping blood throughout the body.

 Skeletal Muscle. Skeletal muscle is the only voluntary muscle tissue in the

human body—it is controlled consciously.

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control centre known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitor conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals from the control centre to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions.13

NERVOUS SYSTEM ANATOMY

The majority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia.

 Neurons. Neurons, also known as nerve cells, communicate within the body

by transmitting electrochemical signals.

 Neuroglia. Neuroglia, also known as glial cells, act as the “helper” cells of the

nervous system.

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

The nervous system has 3 main functions: sensory, integration, and motor.

 SENSORY. The sensory function of the nervous system involves collecting

information from sensory receptors that monitor the body’s internal and

external conditions. These signals are then passed on to the central nervous

system (CNS) for further processing by afferent neurons (and nerves).

INTEGRATION. The process of integration is the processing of the many

sensory signals that are passed into the CNS at any given time. These signals

are evaluated, compared, used for decision making, discarded or committed

to memory as deemed appropriate. Integration takes place in the gray matter

of the brain and spinal cord and is performed by interneurons. Many

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interneurons work together to form complex networks that provide this

processing power.

MOTOR. Once the networks of interneurons in the CNS evaluate sensory

information and decide on an action, they stimulate efferent neurons. Efferent

neurons (also called motor neurons) carry signals from the gray matter of the

CNS through the nerves of the peripheral nervous system to effector cells. The

effector may be smooth, cardiac, or skeletal muscle tissue or glandular tissue.

The effector then releases a hormone or moves a part of the body to respond

to the stimulus.14

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (MEN AND WOMEN).

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands and breasts. These organs are involved in the production and transportation of gametes and the production of sex hormones. The female reproductive system also facilitates the fertilization of ova by sperm and supports the development of offspring during pregnancy and infancy.15

THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands, and penis. These organs work together to produce sperm, the male gamete, and the other components of semen. These organs also work together to deliver semen out of the body and into the vagina where it can fertilize egg cells to produce offspring.

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THE RESPIRATORY OR PULMONARY SYSTEM

The cells of the human body require a constant stream of oxygen to stay alive. The respiratory system provides oxygen to the body’s cells while removing carbon dioxide, a waste product that can be lethal if allowed to accumulate. There are 3 major parts of the respiratory system: the airway, the lungs, and the muscles of respiration. The airway, which includes the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, carries air between the lungs and the body’s exterior. The lungs act as the functional units of the respiratory system by passing oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. Finally: the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, work together to act as a pump, pushing air into and out of the lungs during breathing.16

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