# NURSING

## Week 4

 Week 4 Confidence Intervals and Chi Square (Chs 11 – 12) For questions 3 and 4 below, be sure to list the null and alternate hypothesis statements. Use .05 for your significance level in making your decisions. For full credit, you need to also show the statistical outcomes – either the Excel test result or the calculations you performed. 1 Using our sample data, construct a 95% confidence interval for the population’s mean salary for each gender. Interpret the results. How do they compare with the findings in the week 2 one sample t-test outcomes (Question 1)? Mean St error t value Low to High Males Females Interpretation: 2 Using our sample data, construct a 95% confidence interval for the mean salary difference between the genders in the population. How does this compare to the findings in week 2, question 2? Difference St Err. T value Low to High Yes/No Can the means be equal? Why? How does this compare to the week 2, question 2 result (2 sampe t-test)? a. Why is using a two sample tool (t-test, confidence interval) a better choice than using 2 one-sample techniques when comparing two samples? 3 We found last week that the degrees compa values within the population. do not impact compa rates. This does not mean that degrees are distributed evenly across the grades and genders. Do males and females have athe same distribution of degrees by grade? (Note: while technically the sample size might not be large enough to perform this test, ignore this limitation for this exercise.) What are the hypothesis statements: Ho: Ha: Note: You can either use the Excel Chi-related functions or do the calculations manually. Data input tables – graduate degrees by gender and grade level OBSERVED A B C D E F Total Do manual calculations per cell here (if desired) M Grad A B C D E F Fem Grad M Grad Male Und Fem Grad Female Und Male Und Female Und Sum = EXPECTED M Grad For this exercise – ignore the requirement for a correction Fem Grad for expected values less than 5. Male Und Female Und Interpretation: What is the value of the chi square statistic: What is the p-value associated with this value: Is the p-value <0.05? Do you reject or not reject the null hypothesis: If you rejected the null, what is the Cramer’s V correlation: What does this correlation mean? What does this decision mean for our equal pay question: 4 Based on our sample data, can we conclude that males and females are distributed across grades in a similar pattern within the population? What are the hypothesis statements: Ho: Ha: Do manual calculations per cell here (if desired) A B C D E F A B C D E F OBS COUNT – m M OBS COUNT – f F Sum = EXPECTED What is the value of the chi square statistic: What is the p-value associated with this value: Is the p-value <0.05? Do you reject or not reject the null hypothesis: If you rejected the null, what is the Phi correlation: What does this correlation mean? What does this decision mean for our equal pay question: 5.      How do you interpret these results in light of our question about equal pay for equal work?

## Week 5

 Week 5 Correlation and Regression 1. Create a correlation table for the variables in our data set. (Use analysis ToolPak or StatPlus:mac LE function Correlation.) a. Reviewing the data levels from week 1, what variables can be used in a Pearson’s Correlation table (which is what Excel produces)? b. Place table here (C8 in Output range box): c. Using r = approximately .28 as the signicant r value (at p = 0.05) for a correlation between 50 values, what variables are significantly related to Salary? To compa? d. Looking at the above correlations – both significant or not – are there any surprises -by that I mean any relationships you expected to be meaningful and are not and vice-versa? e. Does this help us answer our equal pay for equal work question? 2 Below is a regression analysis for salary being predicted/explained by the other variables in our sample (Midpoint, age, performance rating, service, gender, and degree variables. (Note: since salary and compa are different ways of expressing an employee’s salary, we do not want to have both used in the same regression.) Plase interpret the findings. Ho: The regression equation is not significant. Ha: The regression equation is significant. Ho: The regression coefficient for each variable is not significant Note: technically we have one for each input variable. Ha: The regression coefficient for each variable is significant Listing it this way to save space. Sal SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.9915590747 R Square 0.9831893985 Adjusted R Square 0.9808437332 Standard Error 2.6575925726 Observations 50 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 6 17762.2996738743 2960.383278979 419.1516111294 1.8121523852609E-36 Residual 43 303.7003261257 7.062798282 Total 49 18066 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0% Intercept -1.7496212123 3.6183676583 -0.4835388157 0.6311664899 -9.0467550427 5.547512618 -9.0467550427 5.547512618 Midpoint 1.2167010505 0.0319023509 38.1382881163 8.66416336978111E-35 1.1523638283 1.2810382727 1.1523638283 1.2810382727 Age -0.0046280102 0.065197212 -0.0709847876 0.9437389875 -0.1361107191 0.1268546987 -0.1361107191 0.1268546987 Performace Rating -0.0565964405 0.0344950678 -1.6407110971 0.1081531819 -0.1261623747 0.0129694936 -0.1261623747 0.0129694936 Service -0.0425003573 0.0843369821 -0.5039350033 0.6168793519 -0.2125820912 0.1275813765 -0.2125820912 0.1275813765 Gender 2.420337212 0.8608443176 2.8115852804 0.0073966188 0.684279192 4.156395232 0.684279192 4.156395232 Degree 0.2755334143 0.7998023048 0.3445019009 0.732148119 -1.3374216547 1.8884884833 -1.3374216547 1.8884884833 Note: since Gender and Degree are expressed as 0 and 1, they are considered dummy variables and can be used in a multiple regression equation. Interpretation: For the Regression as a whole: What is the value of the F statistic: What is the p-value associated with this value: Is the p-value <0.05? Do you reject or not reject the null hypothesis: What does this decision mean for our equal pay question: For each of the coefficients: Intercept Midpoint Age Perf. Rat. Service Gender Degree What is the coefficient’s p-value for each of the variables: Is the p-value < 0.05? Do you reject or not reject each null hypothesis: What are the coefficients for the significant variables? Using only the significant variables, what is the equation? Salary = Is gender a significant factor in salary: If so, who gets paid more with all other things being equal? How do we know? 3 Perform a regression analysis using compa as the dependent variable and the same independent variables as used in question 2. Show the result, and interpret your findings by answering the same questions. Note: be sure to include the appropriate hypothesis statements. Regression hypotheses Ho: Ha: Coefficient hypotheses (one to stand for all the separate variables) Ho: Ha: Put C94 in output range box Interpretation: For the Regression as a whole: What is the value of the F statistic: What is the p-value associated with this value: Is the p-value < 0.05? Do you reject or not reject the null hypothesis: What does this decision mean for our equal pay question: For each of the coefficients: Intercept Midpoint Age Perf. Rat. Service Gender Degree What is the coefficient’s p-value for each of the variables: Is the p-value < 0.05? Do you reject or not reject each null hypothesis: What are the coefficients for the significant variables? Using only the significant variables, what is the equation? Compa = Is gender a significant factor in compa: If so, who gets paid more with all other things being equal? How do we know? 4 Based on all of your results to date, do we have an answer to the question of are males and females paid equally for equal work? If so, which gender gets paid more? How do we know? Which is the best variable to use in analyzing pay practices – salary or compa? Why? What is most interesting or surprising about the results we got doing the analysis during the last 5 weeks?

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