Nursing

1. Suzanne Jones, 76-year-old patient with COPD is admitted to the ICU. Mrs. Jones is placed on mechanical ventilation to assist with her breathing. After 2 days on the ventilator, Mrs. Jones is extubated and then transferred to a medical-surgical unit. The medication regimen is adjusted during the hospitalization. Mrs. Jones is discharged home after 6 days. She and her family are pleased with the care she receive in the hospital. (Learning Objectives 3 and 6)

a. Describe the quality performance tools that may be used to demonstrate that the care and treatment rendered are both cost-efficient and of high quality.

b. Describe the quality performance tools that may be used to demonstrate that the nursing care utilized is evidence-based care and high quality, resulting in patient satisfaction and good patient outcomes.

2. The registered nurse working in the cardiac care clinic is tasked with implementing quality improvement measures. To educate the clinic staff, the nurse plans an in-service program to introduce concepts of quality improvement and evidence-based practice. Additionally, the role of the case manager will be included in the presentation. The nurse plans on using care of the patient with Congestive Heart Failure as a template, and prepares sample clinical pathways, care maps, and multidisciplinary action plans. (Learning Objective 3)

a. Describe how clinical pathways are used to coordinate care of caseloads of patients.

b. What is the role of the case manager in evaluating a patient’s progress?

c. What are examples of evidence-based practice tools used for planning patient care?

. Mr. Jones, who is 74 years of age, is being discharged home after having a right knee replacement. The discharge orders from the orthopedic surgeon include: continuous passive motion (CPM) at the current setting of 0-degrees extension worn when walking with crutches (nonweight-bearing postdischarge day 1, and may begin weight-bearing postdischarge day 2); and home nurse visits, as needed. Physical therapy should begin the day after discharge at an orthopedic center. The orders will be faxed to the center. The following medications with prescriptions attached include: Lovenox (enoxaparin) 70 mg subcutaneously once daily for 7 days, Vicodin (hydrocodone bitartrate) 10 mg every 4 hours PRN, and Colace (docusate sodium) 100 mg every day. The patient is to follow up with the orthopedic surgeon in 3 weeks. His daughter plans to stay with him for several weeks to assist him with meals and household chores, and take him to physical therapy and the orthopedic surgeon for follow-up. Mr. Jones has three other children who live in other states. He is a widower and attends a local church. (Learning Objective 4)

a. What preparations should the nurse make in advance before attaining necessary community resources and referrals before the patient is discharged?

1. What necessary community resources and referrals will the patient need?

2. Mrs. Johnson, a 67-year-old female patient, has recently been discharged from the hospital following an admission for COPD. She has a past medical history of a colon resection related to acute diverticulitis. She developed a surgical wound infection that requires daily wet to dry wound packing and IV Zosyn. Mrs. Johnson was discharged with home oxygen. To manage her care at home, home care visits were ordered. (Learning Objective 5)

a. What would be involved in setting up the first home care visit?

1. Describe the nursing assessments and management that would occur during the visit.

1. Mrs. Elle, 80 years of age, is a female patient who is diagnosed with end-stage cancer of the small intestine. She is currently receiving comfort measures only in hospice. She has gangrene of her right foot and has a history of diabetes controlled with oral agents. She is confused and the physician has determined that she is unable to make her own informed decisions. The hospice nurse, not realizing that the weekly order for CBC and renal profile had been discontinued, obtained the labs and sent them to the nearby laboratory for processing. The abnormal lab results obtained later that day revealed that the patient needed a blood transfusion. The hospice nurse updated the patient’s medical power of attorney who was distressed at the report. The patient’s wishes were to die peacefully and to not have to undergo an amputation of her right foot. But if the patient receives the blood transfusion, she may live long enough to need the amputation. The patient’s physician had previously informed the medical power of attorney that the patient would most likely not be able to survive the amputation. The patient’s medical power of attorney had made the request to cease all labs so that the patient would receive comfort measures until she died. The patient has no complaint of shortness of breath or discomfort. (Learning Objective 4)

a. What ethical dilemma exists?

1. Who are the stakeholders and what gains or losses do each have?

1. What strategies should the hospice nurse take to resolve the ethical dilemma?

2. The nurse receives a 12-year-old girl from the operating room after an emergent appendectomy due to ruptured appendix. Upon arrival to the postanesthesia care unit, the patient is drowsy, but arousable to voice; she was extubated in the operating room and is receiving oxygen by facemask at 40%. She has two peripheral IVs in her left arm that are infusing Lactated Ringers solution at 100 mL/hr. A nasogastric tube is attached to low constant suction, and a small amount of aspirate is noted. She has a urinary catheter that is draining clear, yellow urine. Her abdominal dressing is dry and intact. Upon arousal, she complains of abdominal pain. (Learning Objective 5)

a. What NANDA-approved nursing diagnoses may be relevant to this patient?

1. Once the nursing diagnoses are determined, what steps does the nurse take to complete the Planning Phase of the Nursing Process?

1. What is the difference between nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems?

Case Study, Chapter 4, Health Education and Health Promotion

1. Mr. Smith, a 57-year-old patient, presents at a health fair asking questions about the age-appropriate health maintenance and promotion considerations he should be concerned about. He stated that he only goes to his physician when he is sick and the last time he saw his physician was 2 years ago when he had a sinus infection. (Learning Objectives 7 to 9)

a. What further assessment does the nurse need to make before designing a teaching plan?

1. What topics does the nurse need to include for Mr. Smith based on current medical recommendations?

1. Design a teaching plan that covers the topics.

2. The community health nurse is planning a health promotion workshop for a high school PTSO (Parent-Teacher-Student Organization). The choice of topics was suggested by the high school’s registered nurse who has observed a gradual increase in student obesity. The two nurses have collaborated to develop this workshop to provide parents, students, and teachers with information about the importance of health promotion. (Learning Objectives 6, 8, and 9)

a. Describe the importance of a focus on health promotion.

1. According to the health promotion model developed by Becker (1993), what four variables influence the selection and use of health promotion behaviors?

1. Describe four components of health promotion.

Case Study, Chapter 5, Adult Health and Nutritional Assessment

1. Mrs. Jones, a 40-year-old female patient, is presenting for a history and physical. The nurse gathers a family history from the patient. She shares that her mother died at 70 years of age of colon cancer and had adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. She had a stroke before passing away. Her father died at 67 years of age from a stroke. He had a long history of alcoholism and smoked two packs per day of cigarettes for 50 years. He had hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and two heart attacks; the first heart attack was at 30 years of age and the second at 52 years of age. He had adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents since 50 years of age. He had renal stenosis that was unsuccessfully treated with a renal angioplasty and he developed end-stage renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Mrs. Jones has two brothers. One brother developed hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents at 50 years of age. The second brother has no health problems. The maternal grandmother died at 88 years of age of a stroke and had hypertension. The maternal grandfather died at 70 years of age of a massive heart attack and had a history of hypertension. The paternal grandmother died at 80 years of age of a heart attack. The paternal grandfather died at 50 years of age from bleeding esophageal varices related to long-standing alcoholism. The patient shares that her mother’s first cousin, George, died at 52 years of age of Hodgkin lymphoma. She has another first cousin Mabel, 72 years of age, who is alive but has had cancer of the colon and had a recent stroke, and has a history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and adult onset diabetes controlled with diet. Her mother’s sister, who is 68 years of age, is alive and has a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Her mother’s brother died at 68 years of age of renal cancer and had a history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents. He also had a heart attack at 45 years of age and a coronary artery bypass graft operation of three vessels at 55 years of age. He smoked cigarettes for 50 years. The patient’s father was an only child and her father’s family all lived to be over 80 years of age. (Learning Objective 5)

a. What genetic-related diseases do the patient’s first-order relatives have?

1. What genetic-related diseases do the patient’s second-order relatives have?

1. Optional: Draw a genogram of the patient’s family’s health history using the example in the textbook (see Fig. 5-2) as a guide.

2. The registered nurse prepares to conduct a nutritional assessment on Mrs. Varner, a 52-year-old Caucasian female who describes herself as “overweight most of my adult life.” The client states that her health is good. She works part time as a receptionist and volunteers about 10 hours per week in her church. The nurse obtains Mrs. Varner’s height as 64 inches and her weight as 165 pounds. (Learning Objective 8)

a. What is the rationale for computing body mass index? What is Mrs. Varner’s BMI?

1. Calculate her ideal body weight. What is your assessment of her BMI and weight?

1. Based on Mrs. Varner’s BMI and weight, the nurse measures her waist circumference. Describe the proper procedure for this assessment.

1. Mrs. Varner’s waist circumference is 38 inches. What is your assessment?

1. What laboratory values would the nurse review to evaluate Mrs. Varner’s protein levels?

Case Study, Chapter 6, Individual and Family Homeostasis, Stress, and Adaptation

1. Mr. Smith, a 52-year old patient, is admitted to the coronary care unit with the diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction. The patient has a history of smoking two packs per day of cigarettes for 35 years, and he drinks a six-pack of beer on weekend nights, but does not drink the rest of the week. He is the sole financial support for his family. He is a consultant for a company and is out of town during week days. Over the past year, Mr. Smith has gained 20 pounds. He is 5 foot 6 inches, weighing 200 pounds. His diet consists mostly of fast food. He rarely exercises. His wife cares for their three teenage children. The eldest son, 17 years of age, totaled the family car when drinking and driving 2 days ago and he is in the local children’s hospital in the intensive care unit in critical condition. Mr. Smith developed chest pain and slumped over in his chair during an argument with his wife about their teenage daughter, who is 15 years of age and wanted to get birth control pills. The wife is in the waiting room while the nurses settle Mr. Smith into his room. The youngest son, 13 years of age, is at a friend’s house. The teenage daughter is staying at the bedside of the critically ill eldest son. The wife blames her eldest son for her husband’s heart attack and told the emergency department nurse that she does not care to see her son at all. (Learning Objectives 6, 10, and 11)

a. What maladaptive responses to stress may have contributed to Mr. Smith’s development of an illness?

1. Based on the case study, what family assessment data may be used to determine coping strategies being currently used by the family in crisis?

1. What nursing interventions should be used to promote effective coping for the patient and his family?

2. Mary Turner stepped on a nail 5 days ago and sustained a puncture about 1 inch deep. She immediately cleaned the area with soap and water and hydrogen peroxide, and applied triple antibiotic ointment to the site. Today she comes to the clinic with complaints of increased pain and swelling in her foot. On assessment, the nurse notes that the puncture site is red and edematous, and has a moderate amount of yellowish drainage. (Learning Objective 9)

a. Describe the sequence of events that caused the local inflammation seen in Mary’s foot.

1. What is the role of histamine and kinins in the inflammatory process?

1. Which of the five cardinal signs of inflammation does Mary exhibit?

1. Because Mary’s injury occurred 5 days ago, the nurse should assess for what systemic effects?

Case Study, Chapter 7, Overview of Transcultural Nursing

1. Mrs. Perez, 32 years of age, is a Hispanic patient who is admitted for early stage cancer of the uterus. The surgeon stated that in order to treat Mrs. Perez’s cancer successfully, the uterus will need to be removed surgically through a procedure called a simple hysterectomy leaving the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and vagina. The surgeon requests that the nurse make arrangements for an interpreter, so they can both use the interpreter’s services. The patient only speaks Spanish, but her mother and one of the patient’s sisters are bilingual. They are currently visiting the patient. Her husband is also visiting and he only speaks Spanish. The patient’s two children are with her sister Maria. The family stated they are devout Catholics and request to see a priest while in the hospital. Today is Ash Wednesday. (Learning Objective 4)

a. Which interpreter is the most appropriate choice to communicate with Mrs. Perez and why?

1. After critically analyzing the cultural influences, what nursing actions are appropriate for the patient?

2. The nurse manager of an ambulatory care clinic has noted an increased number of visits by patients from different countries and cultures, including patients from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Concerned about meeting the needs of this culturally diverse population, the nurse manager convenes a staff meeting to discuss this change in patient demographics, and to query the staff about any learning needs they have related to the care of these patients. (Learning Objective 3)

a. What strategy to avoid stereotyping clients from other cultures should the nurse include in this meeting?

1. Identify culturally sensitive issues to be discussed in the staff meeting.

1. One technician on the staff complains that some patients never make eye contact, and this makes it difficult for him to complete his work. How should the nurse respond?

Case Study, Chapter 8, Overview of Genetics and Genomics in Nursing

1. A patient who is 38 years of age is diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, a hereditary disease that results in fluid-filled cysts occupying space in the kidneys. The cysts can interfere with the function of the kidney and may burst and cause bleeding inside the kidney. The patient with polycystic kidney disease may or may not have a berry aneurysm of a blood vessel in the brain that could lead to bleeding and death, cysts on the ovaries, and a mitral valve prolapse (in females) that can lead to dysrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), or diverticula (outpouching of the bowel) that are susceptible to infection and inflammation and may lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient is susceptible to retaining fluid in the abdomen so the abdomen is large to constipation, and to hypertension. There is no cure for the disease. The patient receives supportive care for the various symptoms or complications the patient may have. (Learning Objectives 1 to 3)

a. When explaining to the patient and family about polycystic kidney disease, the nurse should explain what characteristics about an autosomal dominant genetic disease?

1. How does variable expression of genetic characteristics play a role in the course of polycystic kidney disease and how can the nurse further predict the level of the disease?

1. Identify the roles of the nurse in integrating genetics in the nursing care provided for the patient.

2. Mr. Wayne is a 38-year-old man with a significant family history of elevated cholesterol levels. His father died at age 42 from a massive heart attack secondary to elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, and two of his older siblings are currently taking medications to lower their cholesterol levels. Mr. Wayne makes an appointment to discuss his risk for hypercholesterolemia. The nurse recognizes that Mr. Wayne is at risk for familial hypercholesterolemia because this is an autosomal dominant inherited condition. (Learning Objective 2)

a. Describe the pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance.

1. Mr. Wayne asks what chance his children have of developing familial hypercholesterolemia. How should the nurse respond?

1. Explain the phenomenon of penetrance observed in autosomal dominant inheritance.

Case Study, Chapter 9, Chronic Illness and Disability

1. Mr. Edwards is 20-year-old male patient who is admitted for treatment of recurring pyelonephritis (kidney infection) and surgical treatment of a urinary stricture, which has decreased the urinary stream. Mr. Edwards has paraplegia; he is paralyzed from the waist down secondary to an automobile accident when he was 16. He came by ambulance to the hospital, leaving his wheelchair and wheelchair pressure-relieving cushion at home. According to the nursing history, the patient is a nonsmoker and he does not drink alcohol or take any illegal drugs. (Learning Objective 5)

a. What nursing considerations should be made for Mr. Edwards related to his disability?

1. What health promotion and prevention education does Mr. Edwards need?

2. Ms. Fulton is a 38-year-old mother who was recently diagnosed with myasthenia gravis, a chronic disease of the neuromuscular system. Management of this disease process requires strict adherence to a medication regimen. The disease also affects ADLs for the patient and her family. Additionally, because myasthenia gravis is characterized by exacerbations that may require hospitalizations, Ms. Fulton has had to resign from her position as president of a marketing firm. She has remained as an employee of the same company, but now serves as a consultant with more flexible work hours. (Learning Objective 3)

a. In discussing management of her chronic disease, the nurse focuses on what types of strategies?

1. Describe supportive nursing care that may be helpful to Ms. Fulton.

Case Study, Chapter 10, Principles and Practices of Rehabilitation

1. Mrs. Adams, 72 years of age, is admitted to the rehab unit with the diagnosis of stroke. The stroke affected the limbic area in the brain, which has caused the patient to have emotional labiality (her mood changes rapidly because she misinterprets situations). As a result of the emotional labiality, she sometimes refuses to be repositioned or to participate in physical or occupational therapy. She sometimes also refuses to eat and drink. The patient’s right side is paralyzed and flaccid. She has no feeling on her right side. She has reddened areas on her coccyx and both heels at least 1 cm in diameter that do not go away with repositioning. She is incontinent of urine and stool. She has problems with communication called global aphasia (difficulties understanding speech and the written word and difficulties with speaking and writing). She is 5 feet tall and weighs 178 pounds. She has a tendency to develop skin tears because her skin is thin, and she has several bandages on her arms. The family states they are concerned because the staff on the previous medical-surgical unit would drag their mother up in bed when she slid down. The staff would chart when their mother refused to be repositioned and then would not reposition her for hours. (Learning Objectives 2 and 4)

a. Explain the pathophysiology of the risk factors that predispose Mrs. Adams to developing pressure ulcers?

1. What nursing measures need to be instituted for Mrs. Adams based on the information presented in the case study?

2. You are assigned to care for David Ramsey, a 22-year-old male patient who sustained a back injury secondary to being thrown from a motorcycle. He did not damage the spinal cord, but the computed tomography revealed a compression fracture at L-2 (lumbar area). David complains of severe lower back pain with numbness and tingling in the lower extremities. You identify the following nursing diagnosis: Impaired Physical Mobility.

(Learning Objective 4)

a. What assessments are indicated based on this nursing diagnosis?

1. List other major nursing diagnoses based on David’s clinical presentation.

Case Study, Chapter 11, Health Ca

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