NURSING

Question 89. Question :

GLP-1 agonists:

Directly bind to a receptor in the pancreatic beta cell.

Have been approved for monotherapy.

Speed gastric emptying to decrease appetite.

Can be given orally once daily.

Question 90. Question :

Prophylactic use of bisphosphonates is recommended for patients with early osteopenia related to long-term use of which of the following drugs?

Selective estrogen-receptor modulators

Aspirin

Glucocorticoids

Calcium supplements

Question 91. Question :

Inadequate vitamin D intake can contribute to the development of osteoporosis by:

Increasing calcitonin production

Increasing calcium absorption from the intestine

Altering calcium metabolism

Stimulating bone formation

Question 92. Question :

Which of the following statements is true about age and pain?

Use of drugs that depend heavily on the renal system for excretion may require dosage adjustments in very young children.

Among the NSAIDs, indomethacin is the preferred drug because of lower adverse effects profiles than other NSAIDs.

Older adults who have dementia probably do not experience much pain due to loss of pain receptors in the brain.

Acetaminophen is especially useful in both children and adults because it has no effect on platelets and has fewer adverse effects than NSAIDs.

Question 93. Question :

Selective estrogen receptor modifiers (SERMs) treat osteoporosis by selectively:

Inhibiting magnesium resorption in the kidneys

Increasing calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract

Acting on the bone to inhibit osteoblast activity

Selectively acting on the estrogen receptors in the bone

Question 94. Question :

When a patient is on selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors:

The complete blood count must be monitored every three to four months

Therapeutic blood levels must be monitored every six months after a steady state is achieved.

Blood glucose must be monitored every three to four months.

There is no laboratory monitoring required.

Question 95. Question :

Patients whose total dose of prednisone exceed 1 gram will most likely need a second prescription for _________.

metformin, a biguanide to prevent diabetes

omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor to prevent peptic ulcer disease

naproxen, an NSAID to treat joint pain

furosemide, a diuretic to treat fluid retention

Question 96. Question :

The ongoing monitoring of patients over the age sixty-five years taking alendronate (Fosamax) or any other bisphosphonate is:

Annual dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans

Annual vitamin D level

Annual renal function evaluation

Electrolytes every three months

Question 97. Question :

Anticholinergic agents, such as benztropine (Cogentin), may be given with a phenothiazine to:

Reduce the chance of tardive dyskinesia.

Potentiate the effects of the drug.

Reduce the tolerance that tends to occur.

Increase CNS depression.

Question 98. Question :

Diagnostic criteria for diabetes include:

Fasting blood glucose greater than 140 mg/dl on two occasions

Postprandial blood glucose greater than 140 mg/dl

Fasting blood glucose 100 to 125 mg/dl on two occasions

Symptoms of diabetes plus a casual blood glucose greater than 200 mg/dl

Question 99. Question :

Insulin preparations are divided into categories based on onset, duration, and intensity of action following subcutaneous inject. Which of the following insulin preparations has the shortest onset and duration of action?

Insulin lispro

Insulin glulisine

Insulin glargine

Insulin detemir

Question 100. Cynthia is taking valproate (Depakote) for seizures and would like to get pregnant. What advice would you give her?

Valproate is safe during all trimesters of pregnancy.

She can get pregnant while taking valproate, but she should take adequate folic acid.

Valproate is not safe at any time during pregnancy.

Valproate is a known teratogen but may be taken after the first trimester if necessary.

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