Nursing

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Chapter 15

Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s Humanbecoming School of Thought

Developed by Bonnie Pope (2010)

Updated by D. Gullett (2014)

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On completion of this chapter, students will be able to:

Define the discipline and profession of nursing as implicated by Rosemarie Parse.

Articulate Parse’s reasons for changing man-living-health to humanbecoming.

Discuss the nine assumptions underlying the three major themes of Parse’s Humanbecoming Theory.

Describe the two research methods developed by Parse.

Discuss the components of Humanbecoming: The Art.

Identify and discuss the postulates and principles described by Parse and their role in explicating Parse’s Humanbecoming paradigm.

Compare and contrast a simultaneity paradigm, a totality paradigm and Parse’s humanbecoming paradigm.

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Introducing the Theorist Rosemarie Rizzo Parse

  • Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Loyola University Chicago
  • Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing
  • Initiated and is immediate past chair of the Nursing Theory–Guided Practice Expert Panel.
  • Founder and editor of Nursing Science Quarterly
  • President of Discovery International

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Rosemarie Rizzo Parse

  • Founder of the Institute of Humanbecoming
  • Graduate of Duquesne University in Pittsburgh
  • Earned master’s degree and doctorate from the University of Pittsburgh

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Academic Positions

  • Faculty member, University of Pittsburgh
  • Dean School of Nursing, Duquesne University
  • Professor and Coordinator of the Center for Nursing Research at Hunter College, New York (1983 to 1993),
  • Professor and Niehoff Chair in Nursing Research at Loyola University, Chicago (1993 to 2006).

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Current Position

  • Since January 2007, Parse has been a Consultant and Visiting Scholar at the New York University College of Nursing.

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Overview

  • Metaperspective
  • Original work was named Man-Living-Health: A Theory of Nursing (1981).
  • When the term mankind was replaced with male gender in the dictionary definition of man, the name of the theory was changed to human becoming (Parse, 1992).

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Totality vs Simultaneity Paradigms

  • The totality paradigm frameworks and theories are more closely aligned with the medical model tradition.
  • Nurses practicing according to this paradigm are concerned with participation of persons in health care decisions but have specific regimens and goals to bring about change for the people they serve (Parse, 1999b).
  • In contrast, the simultaneity paradigm views the human as unitary–indivisible, unpredictable, and ever-changing (Parse, 1987, 1998a, 2007b), wherein health is considered a value and a process.
  • The ontology leads research and practice scholars to focus on, for example, energy and environmental field patterns (Rogers, 1992).
  • Nurses focus on power in knowing participation (Barrett, 2010; Rogers, 1992).

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Third Paradigm

  • In 2012, Parse identified a third paradigm, the humanbecoming paradigm (Parse, 2012a, 2013a).
  • This was created in as much as the ontology, epistemology, and methodologies of the humanbecoming school of thought have moved on from the traditional metaparadigm conceptualization and beyond the totality and simultaneity paradigms (Parse, 2013a).

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Humanbecoming Paradigm

  • With the humanbecoming paradigm in the ontology, humanuniverse is an indivisible, unpredictable everchanging cocreation, and living quality is the becoming visible-invisible becoming of the emerging now.
  • Nurses living the humanbecoming paradigm beliefs hold that their primary concern is people’s perspectives of living quality with human dignity

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Fundamental Idea

  • Humans are indivisible, unpredictable, ever-changing
  • Precludes any use of terms such as physiological, biological, psychological, or spiritual to describe the human.
  • Other words often used to describe people, such as, noncompliant, dysfunctional, and manipulative are not consistent with humanbecoming
  • Humanbecoming and humanuniverse are presented as one word (Parse, 2007b).
  • Joining the words creates one concept and further confirms the idea of indivisibility.

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The Ontology

  • The assumptions, postulates, and principles of the humanbecoming school of thought (Parse, 2007b).

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Principles

  • Humans construct personal realities with unique choosings arising with illimitable humanuniverse options
  • Rhythmical humanuniverse patterns of relating
  • Revealing–concealing, Enabling-limiting, Connecting–separating
  • Humans are ever-changing, that is, moving on with the possibilities of their intended hopes and dreams.
  • Powering, originating, transforming.

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Humanbecoming Research Methodologies

  • Sciencing humanbecoming is coming to know
  • It is an ongoing inquiry to discover and understand the meaning of lived experiences
  • Three research methods
  • Two basic research methods

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The Basic Research Methods

  • The Parse Method (Parse, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997a, 1998a, 2001)
  • Studying lived experiences from participants’ descriptions
  • The Humanbecoming Hermeneutic Method (Cody, 1995; Parse, 1995, 1998a, 2001, 2005).
  • Studying lived experiences from written texts and art forms

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Humanbecoming: The Art

  • The Goal of the Nurse
  • Living the humanbecoming beliefs is true presence in bearing witness and being with others in their changing health patterns.

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True Presence

  • Lived nurse with person, family, and community in illuminating meaning, synchronizing rhythms, and mobilizing transcendence (Parse, 1987, 1992, 1994a, 1995, 1997a, 1998a).
  • The nurse with individuals or groups is in true presence with the unfolding meanings as persons explicate, dwell with, and move on with changing patterns of diversity.

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True Presence (continued)

  • “True presence is an intentional reflective love, an interpersonal art grounded in a strong knowledge base” (Parse, 1998a, p 71).
  • Distinct from authentic presence, transforming presence, presencing, and other terms in the literature
  • True presence is a powerful humanuniverse connection.
  • Lived in face-to-face discussions, silent immersions, and lingering presence

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Humanbecoming: The Art

  • Humanbecoming nurses live the art of the science of humanbecoming.
  • The term nursing practice is antithetical to the ontology.
  • Nurses come to persons in true presence with an availability to be with and bear witness, as persons illuminate the meaning of the situation, synchronize rhythms, and mobilize transcendence (Parse, 1981, 1987, 1998a, 2007b).

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Humanbecoming Nurses

  • Believe persons know their way and live their health situations according to their unique value priorities.
  • Ask what is most important for the moment
  • Explore meanings, wishes, intents, and desires related to the situation from the perspective of the recipients
  • Humanbecoming nurses are with persons in ways that honor their wishes and desires

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Research & Practice

  • The humanbecoming school of thought is a guide for research, practice, education, and administration in settings throughout the world.
  • Scholars from five continents have embraced the belief system and live humanbecoming in a variety of venues, including health care centers and university nursing programs

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References

Barrett, E.A.M. (2010). Power as knowing participation in change: What’s new and what’s next. Nursing Science Quarterly, 23, 47-55.

Parse, R. R. (1981). Man-living-health: A theory of nursing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Parse, R. R. (1987). Nursing science: Major paradigms, theories, and critiques. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

Parse, R. R. (1990). Parse’s research methodology with an illustration of the lived experience of hope. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3, 9–17.

Parse, R. R. (1992). Human becoming: Parse’s theory of nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 35–42.

Parse, R. R. (Ed.). (1995). Illuminations: The human becoming theory in practice and research. New York:

National League for Nursing Press.

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References

Parse, R. R. (1997a). The human becoming theory: The was, is, and will be. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10, 32–38.

Parse, R. R. (1998a). The human becoming school of thought. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Parse, R. R. (1999b). Nursing: The discipline and the profession. Nursing Science Quarterly, 12, 275.

Parse, R. R. (2001). Qualitative inquiry: The path of sciencing. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Parse, R. R. (2005). The human becoming modes of inquiry: Emerging sciencing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18, 297–300.

Parse, R. R. (2007b). The humanbecoming school of thought in 2050. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20, 308.

Parse, R. R. (2012a). New humanbecoming conceptualizations and the humanbecoming community model:

Expansions with sciencing and living the art. Nursing Science Quarterly, 25, 44-52.

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References

Parse, R. R. (2012b). “The things we make, make us” Nursing Science Quarterly, 25, 125.

Parse, R. R. (2013a). Living quality: A humanbecoming phenomenon. Nursing Science Quarterly 26 (2)

Rogers, M. E. (1992). Nursing science and the space age. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 27–34.

Santopinto, M. D. A., & Smith, M. C. (1995). Evaluation of the human becoming theory in practice with adults and children. In: R. R. Parse (Ed.), Illuminations: The human becoming theory in practice and research (pp. 309–346). New York: National League for Nursing Press.

Smith, M. K. (2002). Human becoming and women living with violence. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15, 302–307.

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