Question 13. Question :
The New York Heart Association and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society have described grading criteria for levels of angina. Angina that occurs with unusually strenuous activity or on walking or climbing stair after meals is:
Question 14. Question :
Patients with allergic rhinitis may benefit from a prescription of:
OTC cromolyn nasal spray (Nasalcrom)
Any of the above
Question 15. Question :
Kyle has Crohn’s disease and has a documented folate deficiency. Drug therapy for folate deficiency anemia is:
Oral folic acid 1 to 2 mg/day
Oral folic acid 1 gm/day
IM folate weekly for at least six months
Oral folic acid 400 mcg daily
Question 16. Question :
The treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency is:
1,000 mcg daily of oral cobalamin
2 gm/day of oral cobalamin
100 mcg/day vitamin B12 IM
500 mcg/dose nasal cyanocobalamin two sprays once a week
Question 17. Question :
Nonadherence is especially common in drugs that treat asymptomatic conditions, such as hypertension. One way to reduce the likelihood of nonadherence to these drugs is to prescribe a drug that:
Has a short half-life so that missing one dose has limited effect
Requires several dosage titrations so that missed doses can be replaced with lower doses to keep costs down
Has a tolerability profile with less of the adverse effects that are considered “irritating,” such as nausea and dizziness
Must be taken no more than twice a day
Question 18. Question :
Type II diabetes is a complex disorder involving:
Absence of insulin production by the beta cells
A suboptimal response of insulin-sensitive tissues in the liver
Increased levels of GLP in the postprandial period
Too much fat uptake in the intestine
Question 19. Question :
Metformin is a primary choice of drug to treat hyperglycemia in type II diabetes because it:
Substitutes for insulin usually secreted by the pancreas
Decreases glycogenolysis by the liver
Increases the release of insulin from beta cells
Decreases peripheral glucose utilization
Question 20. Question :
Gender differences between men and women in pharmacokinetics include:
More rapid gastric emptying so that drugs absorbed in the stomach have less exposure to absorption sites
Higher proportion of body fat so that lipophilic drugs have relatively greater volumes of distribution
Increased levels of bile acids so that drugs metabolized in the intestine have higher concentrations
Slower organ blood flow rates so that drugs tend to take longer to be excreted
Question 21. Question :
If not chosen as the first drug in hypertension treatment, which drug class should be added as the second step because it will enhance the effects of most other agents?
Calcium channel blockers
Question 22. Question :
A nineteen-year-old male was started on risperidone. Monitoring for risperidone includes observing for common side effects, including:
Bradykinesia, akathisia, and agitation
Excessive weight gain
Potentially fatal agranulocytosis
Question 23. Question :
Levetiracetam has known drug interactions with:
Few, if any, drugs
Question 24. Question :
When the total daily insulin dose is split and given twice daily, which of the following rules may be followed?
Give two-thirds of the total dose in the morning and one-third in the evening.
Give 50% of an insulin glargine dose in the morning and 50% in the evening.
Give long-acting insulin in the morning and short-acting insulin at bedtime.
Question 25. Question :
Which of the following factors may adversely affect a patient’s adherence to a therapeutic drug regimen?
Complexity of the drug regimen
Patient’s perception of the potential adverse effects of the drugs
Both A and B
Neither A nor B
Question 26. Question :
The time required for the amount of drug in the body to decrease by 50% is called:
Phase II metabolism
Reduced bioavailability time
Question 27. Question :
Drugs that are absolutely contraindicated in lactating women include:
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine
Antineoplastic drugs such as methotrexate
All of the above
Question 28. Question :
Tobie presents to clinic with moderate acne. He has been using OTC benzoyl peroxide at home with minimal improvement. A topical antibiotic (clindamycin) and a topical retinoid adapalene (Differin) are prescribed. Education of Tobie would include which one of the following instructions?
He should see an improvement in his acne within the first two weeks of treatment.
If there is no response in a week, he should double the daily application of adapalene (Differin).
He may see an initial worsening of his acne that will improve in six to eight weeks.
Adapalene may cause bleaching of clothing.
Question 29. Question :
Martin is a sixty-year-old with hypertension. The first-line decongestant to be prescribed would be:
Question 30. Question :
A woman who is pregnant and has hyperthyroidism is best managed by a specialty team that will most likely treat her with:
Nothing; treatment is best delayed until after her pregnancy ends.
Question 31. Question :
A twenty-four-year-old male received multiple fractures in a motor vehicle accident that required significant amounts of opioid medication to treat his pain. He is at risk for Type __ ADR when he no longer requires the opioids.
Question 32. Question :
Second-generation antihistamines such as loratadine (Claritin) are prescribed for seasonal allergies because they:
Are more effective than first-generation antihistamines
Are less sedating than first-generation antihistamines
Are prescription products and, therefore, are covered by insurance
Can be taken with CNS sedatives, such as alcohol
Question 33. Question :
Steady state is:
The point on the drug concentration curve when absorption exceeds excretion
When the amount of drug in the body remains constant
When the amount of drug in the body stays below the minimum toxic concentration (MTC)
All of the above