Which of the following clients’ signs and symptoms would allow a clinician to be most justified in ruling out stroke as a cause? An adult
A. has vomited and complained of a severe headache.
B. states that his left arm and leg are numb, and gait is consequently unsteady.
C. has had a gradual onset of weakness, headache, and visual disturbances over the last 2 days.
D. has experienced a sudden loss of balance and slurred speech.
As part of the diagnostic workup for a male client with a complex history of cardiovascular disease, the care team has identified the need for a record of the electrical activity of his heart, insight into the metabolism of his myocardium, and physical measurements and imaging of his heart. Which of the following series of tests is most likely to provide the needed data for his diagnosis and care?
A. Cardiac catheterization, cardiac CT, exercise stress testing
B. Ambulatory ECG, cardiac MRI, echocardiogram
C. Serum creatinine levels, chest auscultation, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy
D. Echocardiogram, PET scan, ECG
Which of the following statements best captures an aspect of the process of hematopoiesis?
A. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) produce cytokines that activate progenitor cells.
B. Various subtypes of pluripotent stem cells eventually differentiate into the cellular components of blood.
C. Progenitor cells differentiate into precursor cells.
D. Self-replicating precursor cells differentiate into specific CSFs.
A 54-year-old man with a long-standing diagnosis of essential hypertension is meeting with his physician. The patient’s physician would anticipate that which of the following phenomena is most likely occurring?
A. Epinephrine from his adrenal gland is initiating the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.
B. Vasopressin is exerting an effect on his chemoreceptors and baroreceptors resulting in vasoconstriction.
C. The patient’s juxtaglomerular cells are releasing aldosterone as a result of sympathetic stimulation.
D. The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in his lungs causes increases in blood pressure and sodium reabsorption.
A 44-year-old female patient presents to the emergency department with abnormal bleeding and abdominal pain that is later attributed to gallbladder disease.Which of the following diagnoses would the medical team be most justified in suspecting as a cause of the patient’s bleeding?
A. Hemophilia B
B. Vitamin K deficiency
C. Idiopathic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
D. Excess calcium
Members of an AIDS support group who have more advanced cases are sharing some of their recent health problems with a member who has just been diagnosed. Which of the member’s statements is most accurate?
A. “The eradication of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) has helped extend the life expectancy of a lot of persons living with AIDS.”
B. “As people with HIV live longer, most of us are eventually succumbing to the cancers that are associated with HIV.”
C. “One of the scariest things out there now is the huge increase in drug-resistant tuberculosis.”
D. “Those of us with HIV are so much more prone to loss of vision and hearing.”
A hospital laboratory technologist is analyzing the complete blood count (CBC) of a patient. Which of the following statements best reflects an aspect of the platelets that would constitute part of the CBC?
A. The α-granules of platelets contribute primarily to vasoconstriction.
B. New platelets are released from the bone marrow into circulation.
C. Platelets originate with granulocyte colony–forming units (CFU).
D. The half-life of a platelet is typically around 8 to 12 days.
Which of the following patients has an absolute neutrophil count that is critically low and that the standard of care would recommend they be placed on neutropenic precautions?
A. A 75-year-old renal failure patient receiving Epogen for anemia with hemoglobin level of 9.7.
B. A 37-year-old patient with leukemia being treated with chemotherapy with ANC of 400
C. A patient on long-term steroids for rheumatoid arthritis with WBC of 7000
D. A 65-year-old prostate cancer patient receiving radiation therapy with neutrophil count of 2000
A medical student is working with a 61-year-old male client in the hospital who has presented with a new onset of atrial fibrillation. Which of the following courses of treatment will the student most likely expect the attending physician to initiate?
A. Diuretics, total bed rest, and cardioversion if necessary
B. Anticoagulants and beta-blockers to control rate
C. Immediate cardioversion followed by surgery to correct the atrial defect
D. Antihypertensives and constant cardiac monitoring in a high acuity unit
A physiotherapist is measuring the lying, sitting, and standing blood pressure of a patient who has been admitted to hospital following a syncopal episode and recent falls. Which of the following facts about the patient best relates to these health problems?
A. The patient has a history of acute and chronic renal failure.
B. The patient’s cardiac ejection fraction was 40% during his last echocardiogram.
C. The patient is male and has a history of hypertension.
D. The client is 89 years old and takes a diuretic medication for his congestive heart failure.