A 40-year-old woman who experiences severe seasonal allergies has been referred by her family physician to an allergist for weekly allergy injections. The woman is confused as to why repeated exposure to substances that set off her allergies would ultimately benefit her. Which of the following phenomena best captures the rationale for allergy desensitization therapy?
A. Injections of allergens simulate production of IgG, combining with the antigens to prevent activation of IgE antibodies.
B. Repeated exposure stimulates adrenal production of epinephrine, mitigating the allergic response.
C. Allergens in large, regular quantities overwhelm the IgE antibodies that mediate the allergic response.
D. Repeated exposure to offending allergens binds the basophils and mast cells that mediate the allergic response.
Two nursing students are attempting to differentiate between the presentations of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Which of the students’ following statements best captures an aspect of the two health problems?
A. “Both diseases can result from inadequate production of thrombopoietin by megakaryocytes.”
B. “Both of them involve low platelet counts, but in TTP, there can be more, not less, hemostasis.
C. “TTP can be treated with plasmapheresis, but ITP is best addressed with transfusion of fresh frozen plasma.”
D. “ITP can be either inherited or acquired, and if it’s acquired, it involves an enzyme deficiency.”
A 37-year-old male with HIV who has recently become symptomatic has begun highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Among the numerous medications that the man now regularly takes are several that inhibit the change of HIV RNA to DNA in a CD4+ cell. Which of the following classes of medications addresses this component of the HIV replication cycle?
A. Protease inhibitors
B. Entry inhibitors
C. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
D. Integrase inhibitors
A male international business traveler has returned from a trip to Indonesia. While there, he hired a prostitute for companionship and engaged in unprotected sex on more than one occasion. Unbeknownst to him, this prostitute harbored the hepatitis C virus. Upon return to the United States, he exhibited no symptoms and returned to his usual activities. During this period of no outward symptoms, the man would be classified as being in
A. the clinical disease stage of hepatitis C.
B. the preclinical stage of disease.
C. the chronic phase of hepatitis C.
D. remission and unlikely to develop hepatitis C.
A group of nursing students were studying for their pathophysiology exam by quizzing each other about disorders of WBCs and lymphoid tissue. When asked what the first chromosomal abnormality that identified cancer was, one student correctly answered
B. interleukin cells.
A school nurse is teaching high school students about HIV and AIDS in the context of the school’s sexual health curriculum. Which of the students’ following statements would the nurse most likely want to correct or clarify?
A. “Lots more heterosexual people get HIV these days than they used to.”
B. “Drugs for AIDS reduce the virus in your body, but they don’t get rid of it.”
C. “They have to take a blood sample from you in order to test you for AIDS.”
D. “Condoms provide really good protection from AIDS.”
A nurse on a neurology unit is assessing a female brain-injured client. The client is unresponsive to speech, and her pupils are dilated and do not react to light.She is breathing regularly, but her respiratory rate is 45 breaths/minute. In response to a noxious stimulus, her arms and legs extend rigidly. What is her level of impairment?
C. Vegetative state
D. Brain death
Following a motor vehicle accident 3 months prior, a 20-year-old female who has been in a coma since her accident has now had her condition declared a persistent vegetative state. How can her care providers most accurately explain an aspect of her situation to her parents?
A. “Your daughter has lost all her cognitive functions as well as all her basic reflexes.”
B. “Your daughter’s condition is an unfortunate combination with total loss of consciousness but continuation of all other normal brain functions.”
C. “Though she still goes through a cycle of sleeping and waking, her condition is unlikely to change.”
D. “If you or the care team notices any spontaneous eye opening, then we will change our treatment plan.”
Which of the following patients would be considered to be in the latent period of HIV infection?
A. A 33-year-old heroin drug abuser who has numerous enlarged lymph nodes in his axilla and cervical neck region for the past 4 months
B. A 24-year-old college student who has developed a chronic cough that will not go away, even after taking two courses of antibiotics.
C. A 45-year-old alcohol abuser who is complaining of excessive vomiting of blood that started 2 weeks ago
D. A 16-year-old prostitute who has open sores on her labia that drain purulent secretions