When talking about the various types of granulocytes, which granule contains heparin, an anticoagulant?
A nurse is providing care for a 44-year-old male client who is admitted with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin (FUO). Which of the following characteristics of the client’s history is most likely to have a bearing on his current diagnosis?
A. The client is cachexic and an African American.
B. The client is malnourished, hypomagnesemic, and hypocalcemic.
C. The client is HIV positive and homeless.
D. The client is receiving intravenous normal saline with 20 mEq KCl.
As part of a screening program for prostate cancer, men at a senior citizens’ center are having their blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measured.Which of the following statements would best characterize a high positive predictive value but a low negative predictive value for this screening test?
A. All of the men who had low PSA levels were cancer-free; several men who had high levels also remained free of prostate cancer.
B.Men who had low PSA levels also displayed false-positive results for prostate cancer; men with high levels were often falsely diagnosed with prostate cancer.
C. The test displayed low sensitivity but high specificity.
D. All of the men who had high PSA levels developed prostate cancer; several men who had low PSA levels also developed prostate cancer.
When looking at a granulocyte under a microscope, the anatomy student would describe it as a cell
A. having a kidney-shaped nucleus.
B. having no nuclei.
C. lacking granules.
D. shaped like a sphere with multilobar nuclei.
The cardiologist just informed a patient that he has a reentry circuit in the electrical conduction system in his heart. This arrhythmia is called Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. After the physician has left the room, the patient asks the nurse to explain this to him. Which of the following statements most accurately describes what is happening?
A. “You must have a large clot in one of your arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the special conduction cells in your heart.”
B.“There is an extra, abnormal electrical pathway in the heart that leads to impulses traveling around the heart very quickly, in a circular pattern, causing the heart to beat too fast.”
C. “This means that the SA node (which is the beginning of your heart’s electrical system) has been damaged and is no longer functioning normal.”
D. “For some reason, your electrical system is not on full charge, so they will have to put in new leads and a pacemaker to make it work better.”
In the ED, a homeless patient is brought in with severe hypothermia. The police officers also state that they found a “bottle of booze” on the sidewalk next to him. This puts the nurse on high alert since alcohol contributes to hypothermia by
A. causing the person to have less fat on his body.
B. interfering with the appetite center in the brain causing the person to not respond to hunger pains.
C. increasing his basal metabolic rate, so he will run out of ATP faster than expected.
D. dulling the mental awareness that impairs judgment to seek shelter.
Which of the following glycoproteins is responsible for treating such diseases as bone marrow failure following chemotherapy and hematopoietic neoplasms such as leukemia?
A. Growth factors and cytokines
B. Natural killer cells and granulocytes
C. Neutrophils and eosinophils
D. T lymphocytes and natural killer cells
A professor is teaching a group of students about the role of mitochondria within the cell. Which of the following statements is true of mitochondria?
A. They are the site of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production.
B. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited patrilineally.
C. The number of mitochondria in a cell is equal to the number of nuclei.
D. They are replicated within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
A nurse practitioner is providing care for a client with low levels of the plasma protein gamma globulin. The nurse would recognize that the client is at risk of developing which of the following health problems?
C. Blood clots
A 63-year-old woman has begun a diet that purports to minimize the quantity and effects of free radicals in her body. What physiological processes could best underlie her care provider’s teaching about her new diet?
A. Free radicals increase cytokine expression and adhesion molecule levels, resulting in increased inflammation.
B. Free radicals contribute to atherosclerosis and decreased immune response.
C. Free radicals act as direct mediators in the inflammatory process.
D. Free radicals inhibit the inflammatory response, limiting preadaptive response to infection.
A male client of a nurse practitioner has an autosomal dominant disorder. The client and his partner are considering starting a family. Which of the following statements indicates the client has an adequate understanding of the genetic basis of this health problem?
A. “I know that a single mutant allele is to blame for the health problem.”
B. “I know that new genetic mutations won’t occur between generations.”
C. “I know there’s no way of accurately determining the chance that my child will inherit the disease.”
D. “My children who don’t have the disease still run the risk of passing it on to their children.”