Complete the following assignment. Your assignment should be at least 4 pages total. Use proper APA citations and list your references.
1) Define and give the formula for an odds ratio:
2) Complete the 2 x 2 table below and calculate the Odds Ratio: There were 91 total with lung cancer of which 27 were not exposed to tobacco smoke; 173 total without lung cancer of which 56 were exposed to tobacco smoke. Show your work.
Odds Ratio =
3) Interpret the odds ratio / what does this finding mean?
4) You are reviewing the results of a case-control study of vitamin D supplements and prostate cancer. The study had an alpha level of .05 and 95% CI. The study findings report an Odds Ratio of .49, p value = .001, 95% CI (.45 – .60).
Interpret these results: comment on the OR, p value, and CI.
5) Discuss some of the methodological limitations of the case-control study design.
Include at least 2 scholarly sources (one to include your textbook)