MATHEMATICS

14.When conducting a chi-square test on two variables, a statistically significant relationship is illustrated when:
A) the sample produces a small relationship that is unlikely to have occurred even if there is no difference in the population.
B) the sample produces a small relationship that is likely to have occurred even if there is no difference in the population.
C) the sample produces a large relationship that is unlikely to have occurred even if there is no difference in the population.
D) the sample produces a large relationship that is likely to have occurred even if there is no difference in the population.

15.Which of the following is the BEST statement of the null hypothesis for conducting a Chi-Square analysis?
A) The variables ARE statistically related in the population
B) The variables are NOT statistically related in the population
C) The variables ARE statistically related in the sample
D) The variables are NOT statistically related in the sample

16.The table above shows the number of Olympic medals won by the three countries with the most medals during the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, Australia. There were a total of 244 medals won by the three countries. What percent of the medals won among the three countries were won by the USA?
A) 40.2%
B) 39.8%
C) 40.6%
D) 39.4%

17.The table above shows the counts by gender and highest degree attained for 498 respondents in the General Social Survey. What percent of the sample were males with no high school degree?
A) 48.5%
B) 9.8%
C) 22.6%
D) 20.3%

18.The table above shows the counts by gender and highest degree attained for 498 respondents in the General Social Survey. What percent of the sample did not graduate from high school?
A) 22.6%
B) 20.3%
C) 18.5%
D) 52.4%

19.The table above shows the responses from a sample of 680 people in the General Social Survey to the question, “Do you sometimes drink more than you think you should?” What is the risk (or percentage) of men thinking they drank more than they should?
A) 35.7%
B) 62.1%
C) 46.0%
D) 22.2%

20.A study on the use of seat belts versus belted booster seats for children ages 4 and 5 reported that “Using seat belts instead of booster seats was associated with increased risk for serious injury in an accident; the relative risk was 2.4.” Based on this, it can be concluded that for this study:
A) The percent of children ages 4 and 5 wearing seatbelts was 2.4 times higher than the percent of children in a booster seat.
B) Children ages 4 and 5 wearing seatbelts were 2.4 times more likely to have serious injuries in an accident than were children in a booster seat.
C) The percent of children ages 4 and 5 in a booster seat was 2.4 times higher than the percent of children wearing seatbelts.
D) Children ages 4 and 5 in a booster seat were 2.4 times more likely to have serious injuries in an accident than were children wearing seatbelts

21.A survey asked people how often they exceed speed limits. The data are then categorized into the above contingency table of counts showing the relationship between age group and response. Among people with age over 30, what’s the “risk” of always exceeding the speed limit?
A) 0.20
B) 0.40
C) 0.50
D) 0.33

22.The table above summarizes, by gender of respondent, the responses from 1,033 people to the question, “Do you smoke?” What is the odds ratio for women smoking (to not smoking) compared to men?
A) 0.91
B) 0.87
C) 1.15
D) 1.10

23.The table above shows the opinions of 1447 respondents in the General Social Survey to the question “Do you favor or oppose the death penalty for persons convicted of murder?” The purpose of examining the data is to see if there is a gender difference in how people would respond to this question. State the alternative hypotheses for this study.
A) There is a relationship in the sample between gender and opinion on the death penalty.
B) There is no relationship in the sample between gender and opinion on the death penalty.
C) There is a relationship in the population between gender and opinion on the death penalty.
D) There is no relationship in the population between gender and opinion on the death penalty.

24.The table above shows the opinions of 953 respondents in the General Social Survey to the question “Everything considered, would you say that in general, you approve or disapprove of wiretapping?” The purpose of examining the data is to see if there is a gender difference in how people would respond to this question. To test whether there is a relationship in the population between gender and support for wiretapping, the chi-square statistic = 11.7 and the p-value = 0.001. Are the results statistically significant or not statistically significant and what is the conclusion?
A) The results are not statistically significant. The conclusion is that there is not a relationship between gender and approving of the practice of wiretapping.
B) The results are not statistically significant. The conclusion is that there is a relationship between gender and approving of the practice of wiretapping.
C) The results are statistically significant. The conclusion is that there is not a relationship between gender and approving of the practice of wiretapping.
D) The results are statistically significant. The conclusion is that there is a relationship between gender and approving of the practice of wiretapping.

25.In a newspaper article about whether the regular use of Vitamin C reduces the risk of getting a cold, a researcher is quoted as saying that Vitamin C performed better than placebo in an experiment, but the difference was not larger than what could be explained by chance. In statistical terms, the researcher is saying the results are _______
A) due to non-sampling errors.
B) definitely due to chance.
C) statistically significant.
D) not statistically significant.

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