19. The city council in a suburb of Raleigh is interested in the level of public support for a tax increase to support restoration of nearby parks and waterways. A marketing research firm is selected that then selects a simple random sample of 50 adult residents and contacts each to determine whether the resident would be opposed to the tax increase. Of these, 15 indicated that they would be opposed. The population of interest is all adult residents in the suburb. the residents in the suburb that are opposed to the tax increase. the 50 residents contacted. all households in the suburb. 20. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) assesses the health and nutritional status of Americans. A recent NHANES asked a random sample of 17,567 American adults to fill a detailed questionnaire about what they ate the previous day and give their body mass index (BMI). The researchers then compared individuals who ate avocado with those who didn’t, and found that BMI was lower, on average, among those who ate avocado. This is an example of a survey using a probability sample. a retrospective case-control study. just anecdotal evidence. a prospective cohort. 21. You need to select three subjects from a list of nine subjects. The subjects’ names are provided below. 1. Berliner 4. Wolfe 7. Verducci 2. Blumenthal 5. Stasny 8. Lin 3. MacEachern 6. Santner 9. Critchlow Use the numerical labels attached to the names and the following list of random digits to select three individuals. Read the list of random digits from left to right, starting at the beginning of the list. 44982 20751 27498 12009 45287 71753 98236 66419 84533 11793 20495 05907 11384 Which of the following statements is TRUE? If we used another list of random digits to select the sample, the result obtained with the list actually used would be just as likely to be selected as any other set of three names. If we used another list of random digits to select the sample, we would get a completely different sample than that obtained with the list actually used. If we used another list of random digits to select the sample, we would get at most one name in common with a name obtained with the list actually used. If we used another list of random digits to select the sample, we would get the same result as obtained with the list actually used. 22. Sixty-four pregnant women ranked the severity of their heartburn during pregnancy. Researchers rated newborn hair volume using photographs of the newborn’s head. They found an association between heartburn severity during pregnancy and the amount of hair on newborns. What can we reasonably conclude from this study? Pregnancy is confounded with heartburns in deciding the cause of newborn hair amount. Newborn hair causes heartburns in pregnant women. Eating food causing heartburns during pregnancy leads to newborns that are hairier. A lurking variable likely influences both the severity of heartburns in pregnant women and the amount of hair on newborns. 23. A March 2010 SurveyUSA telephone poll asked about issues facing central Ohio to a random sample of 500 households in the Columbus, Ohio, area. One question was: “Where 10 means most important, and 1 means least important, how important is protecting the environment?” The average response was 6.0. What population is the poll targeting? The poll targets the 500 households in the Columbus area who responded. The poll targets all households with a strong opinion on the environment in the Columbus area. The poll targets registered voters in the Columbus area. The poll targets all households in the Columbus area. 24. A researcher is interested in investigating the relationship between sugar consumption and weight gain for high school students. Fifteen volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group contained six volunteers who were put on a low-sugar diet. The second group consisting of the remaining nine volunteers was put on a diet with sugar constituting approximately 15% of their diet. After eight weeks, the change in weight was recorded for each of the volunteers. The response is the eight-week time period. assignment to groups. percent of sugar in the diet. change in weight.