Law

Juvenile Delinquency in a Diverse Society Second Edition

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Dedication

To William and Christopher, my little delinquents —KB

To Bryce, Avary, Gavin, and Olivia —RS

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Juvenile Delinquency in a Diverse Society Second Edition

Kristin A. Bates California State University, San Marcos

Richelle S. Swan California State University, San Marcos

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Bates, Kristin Ann, author. | Swan, Richelle S., author.

Title: Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society / Kristin A. Bates, Richelle S. Swan.

Description: Second edition. | Los Angeles : SAGE, [2018] | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2016038632 | ISBN 978-1-5063-4749-3 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Juvenile delinquency. | Juvenile delinquents. | Juvenile justice, Administration of.

Classification: LCC HV9069 .B38 2017 | DDC 364.36—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016038632

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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Brief Contents Preface Acknowledgments PART 1. UNDERSTANDING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

CHAPTER 1: Thinking About Juvenile Delinquency in a Diverse Society CHAPTER 2: The Creation of Delinquency CHAPTER 3: Understanding Delinquency: Data, Correlates, and Trends

PART 2. THEORIES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY CHAPTER 4: Micro-Level Theories CHAPTER 5: Macro-Level Theories CHAPTER 6: Critical Theories

PART 3. THE SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

CHAPTER 7: Families in Context CHAPTER 8: Schools in Context CHAPTER 9: Peers and Gangs in Context CHAPTER 10: Drugs in Context

PART 4. RESPONSES TO JUVENILE DELINQUENCY CHAPTER 11: Why a Separate Juvenile Justice System? CHAPTER 12: Policing and the Process of the Juvenile Court CHAPTER 13: Juvenile Corrections CHAPTER 14: Preventative, Rehabilitative, and Restorative Approaches to Delinquency

Glossary Notes Index About the Authors

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Contents Preface Acknowledgments PART 1. UNDERSTANDING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY,

Chapter 1. Thinking About Juvenile Delinquency in a Diverse Society,

Chapter Objectives, Chapter Pretest, Defining Juvenile Delinquency,

The Special Case of the Juvenile, The Definition of Delinquency, • On the Media: Live Streaming Delinquency and Crime,

Conceptions of Juvenile Delinquency, Normative Conception of Delinquency, Social Constructionist Conception of Delinquency, Critical Conception of Delinquency,

The Well-Being of Children, • A Focus on Research: Samuel Phillips Day’s “Juvenile Crime: Its Cause, Character, and Cure,” Economic Circumstances, Physical Environment and Safety, Education, The Cradle-to-Prison Pipeline,

The United States as a Place Where Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality Are Important,

• From the Classroom to the Community: Center on Wrongful Convictions of Youth, Individual Versus Institutional Racism, Classism, and Sexism, • In the News: The Income Gap, The Intersectionality of Race, Class, and Gender,

The Sociological Imagination, Your Sociological Imagination Put to the Test: Five Vignettes,

The Juvenile Justice System and Diversity, Philosophy and Organization of the Book,

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Summary, Eye on Diversity Exercise: Social Construction and Media, Discussion Questions, Key Terms, Chapter Pretest Answers,

Chapter 2. The Creation of Delinquency, Chapter Objectives, Chapter Pretest, The Social Construction of Youth and Delinquency,

Ancient Times and the Middle Ages (776 BCE–1400 CE), The Colonial and Revolutionary Period (late 1400s– 1800), The “Child-Saving” Era, the Industrial Revolution, and the Creation of the Juvenile Court (1800s–early 1900s), • A Focus on Research: Chávez-García’s Intelligence Testing at Whittier State School, 1890–1920, Views of Youth and Delinquency in the Juvenile Court (1899–Present),

Popular Culture: A Target of Moral Panics About Delinquency,

• On the Media: Ahmed Mohamed and the Clock That Started a Panic, • On the Media: Award-Winning Perspectives on Juvenile Justice Issues, • From the Classroom to the Community: The Campaign for Youth Justice—“Because the Consequences Aren’t Minor,”

At the Crossroads: 21st-Century Social Constructions of Youth and Delinquency,

• In the News: The Deaths of Trayvon Martin, Michael Brown, and Tamir Rice,

Summary, Eye on Diversity Exercise: Delinquency and Dependence in 21st-Century Films, Discussion Questions, Key Terms, Chapter Pretest Answers,

Chapter 3. Understanding Delinquency: Data, Correlates, and

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Trends, Chapter Objectives, Chapter Pretest, How to Lie With Statistics,

What Goes Into a Good Statistic?, • From the Classroom to the Community: The Children’s Defense Fund,

Qualitative Versus Quantitative Data, How Do We Know What We Know? What Data Sources Do We Use to Map Trends?,

Data Sources for Correlates and Trends in Delinquency, • On the Media: Podcast: Improving Youth Programming: The Role of Research, • In the News: A Tyranny of Small Numbers, or Is YouTube the Start of the Next Australian Girls’ Violence Epidemic?,

Correlates of Delinquency, Age, Gender, Race and Ethnicity, Class, • A Focus on Research: Sampson’s “Immigration and Homicide Trends,”

The Nature of Delinquency as Measured by the UCR, General Trends in Delinquency,

Trends Measured by the UCR, Trends Measured by the NCVS, Self-Report Data: Monitoring the Future,

Trends in Delinquency for Gender, Official Trends From the UCR, Gender Trends in Illicit Drug Use From Self-Reports, Comparisons of Gender and Delinquency Between the UCR, the NCVS, and Self-Report Data: The Girls Study Group,

Trends in Delinquency for Race/Ethnicity, Official Trends From the UCR, Race and Ethnicity Trends in Illicit Drug Use From Self-Reports, Comparisons of Race/Ethnicity and Delinquency

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Between Official and Self-Report Data, Summary, Eye on Diversity Exercise: Juvenile Violent Crime Trend in City, Discussion Questions, Key Terms, Chapter Pretest Answers,

PART 2. THEORIES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY, Chapter 4. Micro-Level Theories,

Chapter Objectives, Chapter Pretest, Pre-Classical Ideas, Classical Theories, Biological, Psychological, and Biosocial Theories,

Early Biological Theories, Psychological Theories, • On the Media: The Viral Blog Post: I Am Adam Lanza’s Mother, Biosocial Theories,

Differential Association Theory, Differential Association Theory and Class, Gender, and Race,

Social Control Theory/Social Bonding Theory, Classical Social Control Theory, • In the News: The Flint Water Crisis, Life Course and Developmental Theories, • From the Classroom to the Community: Helping Kids Make Better Choices: Mujeres Organization, Social Control and Gender: The Example of Power- Control Theory, Techniques of Neutralization Model,

General Strain Theory, General Strain Theory and Race, General Strain Theory and Gender, • A Focus on Research: General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Extending a Popular Explanation to American Indian Youth,

Micro-Level Theories and Public Policy, Summary, Eye on Diversity: Antibullying Exercise Evaluating a

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School’s Program, Discussion Questions, Key Terms, Chapter Pretest Answers,

Chapter 5. Macro-Level Theories, Chapter Objectives, Chapter Pretest, Social Structural Theories of Delinquency, Anomie Theories,

Durkheim’s Anomie Theory, Merton’s Strain Theory, Differential Opportunity Theory, Subcultural Theory of Delinquency, • From the Classroom to the Community: The “I Have a Dream” Foundation, Anomie Theories of Delinquency and Race, Class, and Gender Intersections,

Social Disorganization Theory, Park and Burgess’s Social Disorganization Theory, Shaw and McKay’s Social Disorganization and Delinquency Theory, Frazier’s Ecological Analysis of Delinquency Among Black Youth, Sampson and Groves’s Model of Social Disorganization, Collective Efficacy Model, Social Disorganization Theories of Delinquency and Race, Class, and Gender Intersections, • In the News: Voices of Youth Dealing With Crime and Delinquency, • A Focus on Research: Huang, Ryan, and Rhoden’s “Foster Care, Geographic Neighborhood Change, and the Risk of Delinquency,”

Social Structural Theories and Public Policy, Anomie, Social Disorganization, • On the Media: The Interrupters,

Summary, Eye on Diversity Exercise: A Look at Sexuality, Homeless Youth, and Delinquency,

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Discussion Questions, Key Terms, Chapter Pretest Answers,

Chapter 6. Critical Theories, Chapter Objectives, Chapter Pretest, Critical Theories of Delinquency,

Labeling Theory, Origins of Labeling Theory, • In the News: Justice-Involved Youth, Development of Labeling Theory, Labeling, Self-Concept, and Gender, Labeling, Social Exclusion, Race, and Class, What About Positive Labeling?, Resistance to the Delinquent Label, • A Focus on Research: Holsinger and Hodge’s “The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Girls in Juvenile Justice Systems,”

Conflict Theory: A Focus on Socioeconomic Class, The Origins of Conflict Theory, The Development of Conflict Theories of Crime, Conflict Theories of Delinquency, • On the Media: Online Analysis of Miscarriages of Youth Justice,

Feminist Theories: A Focus on Gender and Intersectionality,

• In the News: Teen Computer Hacker Arrested for Targeting U.S. Government Employees, The Origins of Feminist Theories, The Development of Feminist Theories of Crime and Delinquency, • From the Classroom to the Community: The Equity Project and Justice for LGBT Youth,

Critical Theories of Delinquency and Public Policy, Summary, Eye on Diversity Exercise: Are Critical Theories of Delinquency Being Put Into Action in Your Area?, Discussion Questions, Key Terms, Chapter Pretest Answers,

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PART 3. THE SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY,

Chapter 7. Families in Context, Chapter Objectives, Chapter Pretest, Family Today,

Trends in the Family—Marriage, Divorce, and Unmarried Birth Rates, Trends in Family Structure/Composition, • On the Media: Podcasts, Parenting, and the LGBTQ Community,

Family and Delinquency, Family Structure and Delinquency, Family Process, • From the Classroom to the Community: Parent Responsibility Laws: Should the Parent Be Held Responsible for Youth Behavior?,

Diversity and the Family, Gender, Family, and Delinquency, Intersections of Gender, Class, Family, and Delinquency, • In the News: Mothers’ Job Curb Urged in Drive on Delinquency, Intersections of Race, Gender, Class, Family, and Delinquency,

Child Maltreatment, Child Maltreatment and Delinquency,

Girls, Abuse, Running Away, and Delinquency, Parents in Prison,

• A Focus on Research: Rosario, Schrimshaw, and Hunter’s Homelessness Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth, The Impact of an Incarcerated Parent,

Foster Care and Foster Youth, Summary, Eye on Diversity Exercise: Parenting in Prison, Discussion Questions, Key Terms, Chapter Pretest Answers,

Chapter 8. Schools in Context,

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Chapter Objectives, Chapter Pretest, The Diverse School Experience,

Trends in Academic Achievement, International Comparisons,

The Budgeting of Education, School Failure, Dropping Out, and Delinquency,

School Failure, Dropping Out,

Disengagement and Delinquency, Crime and Delinquency in Schools,

Violence at School, • In the News: 9-Year-Old Tasered,

Bullying and Cyberbullying, • A Focus on Research: Leavy and Maloney’s American Reporting of School Violence and “People Like Us”: A Comparison of Newspaper Coverage of the Columbine and Red Lake School Shootings, Bullying, Cyberbullying, • On the Media: The New Trend: Cyberbullying Laws That Protect Teachers,

The Policy of Punishment in Schools: The School-to-Prison Pipeline,

• From the Classroom to the Community: The Dignity in Schools Campaign, Punishments in Schools: Corporal Punishment, Restraint, and Seclusion, Zero-Tolerance and Increased Social Control,

The School and Student Rights, Summary, Eye on Diversity Exercise: Examining School Data on Delinquency, Discussion Questions, Key Terms, Chapter Pretest Answers,

Chapter 9. Peers and Gangs in Context, Chapter Objectives, Chapter Pretest, Why Do Peers Matter to Delinquency?,

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Friendship and Delinquency: How Gender Matters, The Kid in the Corner: The Impact of a Lack of Friendships,

• A Focus on Research: Jones’s “‘It’s About Being a Survivor’ . . .African American Girls, Gender, and the Context of Inner City Violence,”

Conventional Adolescence or New Forms of Delinquency? The Use of Technology as a Means of Peer Interaction,

Sexting, • In the News: Snapchat Leads to Burglary Arrest, Documenting Delinquency Online,

Gangs and Delinquency, What Is a Youth Gang?, How Common Is Youth Gang Activity?, What Ethnic and Racial Groups Have Been Represented in Youth Gang Formation in the United States?, Why Do Youth Gangs Form, and Why Does Gang Violence Occur? A Focus on Social Class, Race, Sexuality, and Social Inequality, Girls in Gangs, Responses to Youth Gangs, • On the Media: Portrayals of Gay and Transgender Youth in Gangs, • From the Classroom to the Community: Homeboy Industries,

Summary, Eye on Diversity Exercise: Gangs and Technology, Discussion Questions, Key Terms, Chapter Pretest Answers,

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