Many death penalty cases are vacated through ALL BUT WHICH of the following means

a. clemency
b. appeal
c. death by natural causes
d. suicide

22. Project Innocence has exonerated more than 200 convicted offenders primarily due to

a. DNA technology
b. eyewitness testimony
c. police investigation
d. suspect intimidation

23. Current data indicate that

a. 32% of all traffic fatalities are caused by impaired drunk drivers
b. 32% of all traffic fatalities are alcohol related
c. 32,000 people are killed each year by drunk drivers
d. 32% of drivers who have consumed alcohol are impaired by it

24. Select the drunk driving myth from the following list

a. people with a serious drinking problem and many arrests frequently beat the system
b. alcohol related does not mean alcohol was the cause of the accident
c. most drivers killed in alcohol-related crashes do not have a history of drunk driving
d. the criminal justice system is tough on drunk drivers

25. The reality of driving after drinking is that

a. it is limited to a few dangerous people
b. innocent bystanders are the typical victims of alcohol-related crashes
c. a small number of people with serious drinking problems and many arrests are responsible for the majority of alcohol-related fatalities
d. drinking and driving is a routine part of a society where driving is universal and drinking is an acceptable social custom

26. It is a myth to think that innocent drivers or bystanders are the typical victims of alcohol related crashes when faced with evidence from the chapter that

a. 68% of people killed have at least three prior drunk driving arrests
b. 68% of people killed are drivers in other cars, some of whom were impaired by alcohol
c. 68% of people killed are the drunk drivers themselves
d. innocent drivers or bystanders are the typical victims of alcohol related crashes

27. Among the myths concerning drunk driving is

a. that those with serious drinking problems beat the system
b. a grossly exaggerated bi-annual number of deaths due to drunk driving
c. innocent drivers and bystanders are typically the victims of alcohol-related crashes
d. all of the above

28. There are several reasons for thinking that tougher punishment is likely to work with drunk driving, including the fact that

a. the certainty requirement is already being met so a more severe punishment will strengthen the deterrent effect
b. the drunk driver meets all of the assumptions set forth in the theory of deterrence
c. people who drink and drive have a stake in society and feel threatened by the stigma of arrest
d. a & c

29. The Road Safety Act in England demonstrated

a. initial deterrence decay as there was a decline in traffic fatalities and injuries upon implementation of the law that increased over time
b. a deterrence program based in fear that has a zero-tolerance policy for any traffic infraction
c. the failure of interlock breathalyzer systems in cars
d. how access to public transportation reduces drinking and driving

30. The announcement effect may change the behavior of

a. the public, but not the police c. the police, but not the public
b. the public and the police d. neither the public or the police

31. One of the main problems with drunk driving crackdowns is that

a. they require long-term behavior change
b. they are unconstitutional
c. the risk of arrest is extremely low
d. people avoid them by taking side streets

32. One of the factors undermining the deterrent effect of a crackdown on drunk driving cases in court is that

a. the punishment is delayed so the speedy element of deterrence goes unmet
b. offenders do not perceive the consequences as unpleasant
c. crackdowns reduce the specific deterrent while increasing the general deterrent
d. mandatory sentences may be evaded

33. Data on evasion of the law in drunk driving cases shows that

a. it is more common among prosecutors than judges
b. evasions may be deliberate or unintentional
c. evasion of drunk driving laws is universal
d. evasion does not occur

34. Traffic fatality trends reveal that

a. the motor vehicle death rate has declined since 1927 including a 50% decline since 1980
b. crackdowns are credited with 50% of the decline in the motor vehicle death rate
c. the motor vehicle death rate has declined but drunk drivers have switched to motorcycles
d. the motor vehicle death rate has increased dramatically since the 1980s

35. Explanations for the trends in motor vehicle death rates include

a. safer cars
b. changing attitudes and behavior due to socialization
c. limited driving privileges for teens and raising the legal drinking age to 21
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

36. Walker proposes that

a. crackdowns and tougher penalties are the most effective means for reducing drunk driving and traffic fatalities
b. criminal law strategies have more promise for reducing drunk driving and traffic fatalities
c. a combination of criminal law and alternative strategies can effectively reduce drunk driving and traffic fatalities
d. drunk driving and fatalities cannot be reduced

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