Law

. Reasons provided to explain why offenders commit crime when they assess the bad consequences include ALL BUT WHICH of the following

a. offenders consistently underestimate financial rewards of crime
b. offenders act impulsively
c. offenders perceive no legitimate or meaningful work opportunities
d. offenders overestimate the immediate, short-term gains

11. The most promising POP initiative in the 1990s which was replicated in other locations was

a. Chicago Area Project
b. Zero tolerance in New York
c. Boston Gun Project
d. Los Angeles Rampart – C.R.A.S.H.

12. The pulling levers strategy focuses on

a. all potential offenders of property and violent crimes
b. offenders and associates known to police
c. offenders in prison who committed a gun-related crime
d. offenders who are sex offenders

13. The key elements of “pulling levers” that demonstrate how it is a focused application of deterrence include ALL BUT WHICH of the following

a. a focus on a select target group
b. a message that includes both deterrent and rehabilitative components
c. delivering on the threats and promises made
d. relying on the perceptions of people in the community

14. The following U.S. Supreme Court case held that the death penalty as applied was arbitrary and capricious and as such unconstitutional

a. Shall v. Martin
b. Furman v. Georgia
c. Gregg v. Georgia
d. Ring v. Arizona

15. The following U.S. Supreme Court case reinstituted the death penalty where there were guidelines to control its application

a. Shall v. Martin
b. Furman v. Georgia
c. Gregg v. Georgia
d. Ring v. Arizona

16. Sellin’s comparative research showed that

a. homicide rates increased in states when they abolished their death penalty and decreased when it was reinstated
b. each execution deterred seven or eight murders
c. states with the death penalty did not have lower crime rates than states that did not have the death penalty
d. homicides decreased in the months following an execution

17. Ehrlich’s research purported to prove that

a. each execution deterred seven or eight murders
b. each execution contributed to an additional seven or eight murders
c. each execution deterred 17 or 18 murders
d. each execution contributed to an additional 17 or 18 murders

18. Critics of Ehrlich’s death penalty research assert that his formula

a. does not control of the variables that affect the murder rate
b. explains trends between the 1930s and 1960s but does not explain trends between the 1980s and 1990s
c. does not explain trends between the 1930s and 1960s when executions declined while the crime rate declined or remained stable
d. cannot explain trends during the moratorium on the death penalty from 1972-1976

19. The most recent and most comprehensive review of the research has shown

a. the death penalty has a strong deterrence effect on crime
b. the death penalty has moral and constitutional properties
c. there is a lack of consensus on the deterrent effect of the death penalty
d. the death penalty affects the murder rate

20. Advocates of the death penalty claim that the __________ element of deterrence is undermined as a result of the appeals process.

a. rationality c. speed
b. severity d. perception

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