ee my comments throughout your paper and the grading rubric on the last page.

Library Research: Applying Theory to Violent Victimization

Module 1: Assignment 3

Christine Ramirez Maldonado

Argosy University

Victimization is when a person has been victimized. It is quite clear that the root word of victimized or victimization is “victim,” therefore let’s start by defining that first. A victim is any person who is harmed, injured, or killed as a result of crime. Therefore, victimization or victimizing someone else is an act of making someone a victim. Evidently, a person harms, inures, or kills someone else as a result of a crime they commit. The crime itself can be an act of harming, injuring, or killing someone, but it can also be a consequence of a crime.

The three victimization theory that would explain Carla’s case would be the lifestyle theory, routine activity theory and deviant place theory. I have chosen these theories because I feel it would best explain what and why it had happen to Carla. All three of these theories by definition are related to each other in a way or another. Lifestyle theory claims that individuals are targeted based on their lifestyle choices and that these lifestyles choices expose them to criminal offenders and situations in which crimes may be committed. An example to Carla’s situation would be her jogging to her boyfriend’s place at night even though he lives in a broken-down apartment hidden from the main road. Routine activity theory explains the rate of victimization through a set of situations that reflect the routines of typical individuals such as: availability of suitable targets, absence of capable guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders. This theory explains that the presence of one or more of these factors creates a higher risk of victimization. In Carla’s case, the offenders would know that she routinely jogs to her boyfriend’s house from hers which it allows the offenders to know when and where to commit the crime against her. Deviant place theory states that greater exposure to dangerous places makes an individual more likely to become the victim of a crime. Unlike the victim precipitation theory, the victims do not influence the crime by actively or passively encouraging it, but rather are victimized as a result of being in a bad area. Carla knew that the area where her boyfriend lives is not a great area yet she still chooses to jog there at night. Carla should have avoided jogging there at night time to avoid being the victim of the crime.

In my opinion, the theory that is most relevant to Carla’s case would be the routine activity theory. I have chosen this theory because she had been killed and sexually assaulted and her body was found ten minutes in an area covered with trees, between the main road and the apartment complex where Casey lived. Because she routinely jogged to her boyfriend’s place, it would make her an easy target for the offenders for they would know where to wait for her. There are so many possibilities for Carla to victimize in this situation. The located on she goes to is not a great neighborhood; jogging at night to her boyfriend’s broken-down apartment between a bar where drinking occurs and the building used by probation officers and drug rehab is not a great area for a female to be jogging at night. As a female, you have many disadvantages and crimes committed against you. Areas where crime rate is high should be avoided; areas where there would be drunks should be avoided along with such areas that have constant movements of offenders in and out like the building probation officers uses and drug rehab counselor uses. Comment by Douglas Brinkley: Good selection of theories that are applicable to this scearnio.

I believe the least theory related to Carla’s case would be the victim precipitation theory. Victim precipitation theory views victimology from the standpoint that the victims themselves may actually initiate, either passively or actively, the criminal act that ultimately leads to injury or death. In this theory, the victim unconsciously exhibits behaviors or characteristics that instigate or encourage the attack. Siegel lists job promotions, job status, successes, love interests, and the like as examples of these unconscious behaviors and characteristics. The reason why I have chosen this theory because Carla was jogging to her boyfriend’s place and was showing any behavior or characteristics which may encourage the attack done on her. It just so happen that she was jogging in the dark to a bad area located between bars, building used by probation officers and away from the main road.

I don’t believe that Carla is to be blamed totally for what had happened to her. I think that she had made a poor decision which causes her life. She should have driven her car rather than jog at night time to her boyfriend’s place. I don’t think anyone would have asked to have what happen to Carla to happen to them. There are very many sick people out there. The fact that she is a female puts her at a higher risk of being victimized. I for one would not be jogging at night anywhere and especially to a place where it is hidden from the main road and is located between a bar and a building occupy by probation officer. Such apartment that are broken-down means the rent is cheap, when the rent is cheap, it attracts many types of bad people to live there such as, drug dealers, drug addicts, drunks, sex offenders, etc. She could have avoided it all by having her boyfriend pick her up or driving there herself.


Harper, Laine (August 22, 2014) The Four Theories of Victimization.

Instructor Feedback and Grading Rubric

You did a good job highlighting the circumstances that resulted in the death of Cara and relating the victimization theories presented in class to this specific case. Good use of a variety of resources to support your theory assertions. Your paper was well written and formatted.

Assignment 3 Grading Criteria Maximum Points
Analyzed and explained at least three victimization theories that relate to Carla’s case. 32/32
Analyzed and justified a victimization theory that relates to the case and another that is least relevant to the case. 32/32
Analyzed and justified whether Carla precipitated or was partially to blame for the crime. 28/28
Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in the accurate representation and attribution of sources; and used accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation: 8/8

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