Law

Chapter 12 Quiz – Gain Compliance with the Law

TRUE/FALSE

1. Crime control policies have traditionally relied on external authority, such as law enforcement and punitive sentence, but procedural justice policies seek to cultivate internally based voluntary obligation

2. Where you have lawfulness you always find legitimacy.

3. Domestic violence offenders had lower recidivism rates when they felt they were treated fairly in the criminal justice system.

4. Procedural justice issues appear to contribute to law-abiding behavior in terms of minor offenses but the effect on serious crimes is not yet known.

5. The most important injustices are the visible action of police that involve beat meetings.

6. Research evidence shows the injustice of racial bias in the criminal justice system to be perceived but not real.

7. In response to the overreach of criminal behavior, some have recommended the law be used sparingly and focus on high consensus offenses that cause harm.

8. A lack of consensus over criminal behavior contributes to the appearance of arbitrary law enforcement which can result in cynicism about law enforcement.

9. The practical consequences of making certain behavior illegal include the development of criminal syndicates as well as the possibility of corruption of the criminal justice system.

10. The flawed crime control strategy underlying decriminalization of public order offenses assumes it would give police more time to concentrate on serious crimes.

11. Thirty seven states prohibit sodomy, but the remaining states have decriminalized it.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The ultimate goal of the CJS and other social institutions is to

 

a.

maintain an orderly society

 

b.

hold people accountable for their   actions

 

c.

help people adjust to their social   environment

 

d.

maintain the economic and political   social order

 

e.

all of the above

2. The difference between traditional crime control policies and procedural justice policies is

 

a.

procedural justice policies demand   rigorous evidence-based evaluations of their effectiveness whereas   traditional crime control policies did not

 

b.

liberals and conservatives conflicted   over traditional crime control policies but are largely in agreement when it   comes to procedural justice policies

 

c.

traditional policies rely on external   coercion to get people to obey the law whereas procedural justice policies   seek to cultivate voluntary compliance with the law

 

d.

traditional crime control policies tend   to be expensive to implement and subject to evasion by the courtroom   workgroup whereas procedural justice policies are not

3. Tyler argues that a critical factor in people’s complying with the law is

 

a.

they are aware of the law

c.

they understand the consequences

 

b.

perceived legitimacy of the law

d.

all of the above

4. What is the difference between lawfulness and legitimacy?

 

a.

the two terms can be used   interchangeably

 

b.

lawfulness refers to liberal policies   while legitimacy refers to conservative policies

 

c.

lawfulness refers to citizens while   legitimacy refers to the justice system

 

d.

lawfulness refers to behavior while   legitimacy refers to perception

5. _____(1)_____ involves case outcomes while _____(2)_____ depends on how people feel they were treated.

 

a.

(1) lawfulness (2) legitimacy

 

b.

(1) distributive justice (2) procedural   justice

 

c.

(1) legitimacy (2) cumulative   disadvantage

 

d.

(1) procedural justice (2) perception

6. One of the key variables in people’s satisfaction with a system is the sense that

 

a.

they have an opportunity to participate   and express their point of view

 

b.

it does not rely on coercive authority   as a mechanism for gaining compliance

 

c.

the system promotes the greatest good   for the greatest number

 

d.

the system itself displays lawful   behavior

7. In studies of procedural justice, it was found that offenders who perceived they were treated fairly by criminal justice agents

 

a.

recidivated at a higher rate

c.

were more likely to accept plea   negotiations without an attorney

 

b.

impacted their level of satisfaction and   recidivism rates

d.

only committed minor offenses

8. Tyler’s research found that a sense of justice contributes to law-abiding behavior, but a limitation of the study was that he only asked people about what?

 

a.

juvenile delinquency

c.

domestic violence

 

b.

victimless crimes

d.

minor offenses

9. The importance of procedural justice in relation to people’s perceptions has been examined in which part(s) of the criminal justice system?

 

a.

law enforcement

c.

law enforcement and sentencing

 

b.

trial proceedings

d.

sentencing and reentry

10. Examples of building relations with the community include

 

a.

domestic violence treatment programs

c.

sex offender notification

 

b.

community policing and citizen oversight

d.

juries

11. Racial profiling appears to be

 

a.

perceived by communities and supported   by research evidence

 

b.

compliant as well as lawful with police   departments tracking incidents

 

c.

not conclusively supported by data, but   police departments take proactive steps to reduce incidents

 

d.

the product of unlawful discrimination

12. There is evidence of significant racial disparity in the enforcement of

 

a.

murder

c.

gambling

 

b.

burglary

d.

drugs

13. Decriminalization has generally been a _____(1)_____ policy recommendation, but a number of prominent _____(2)_____ now support the legalization of drugs.

 

a.

(1) conservative (2) liberals

c.

(1) public (2) police chiefs

 

b.

(1) liberal (2) conservatives

d.

(1) police chief’s (2) liberals

14.  Which of the following is the most accurate statement regarding decriminalization?

 

a.

decriminalizing all forms of sports   betting has been suggested, but not casino gambling

 

b.

decriminalizing the purchase, possession   and use of cocaine but not marijuana has been suggested

 

c.

decriminalization of sexual activity   between adults and between an adult and a 16 year old has been suggested

 

d.

decriminalization of public drunkenness   has been suggested, but not drunk driving

15. The basic assumption underlying decriminalization is the belief that the criminal law in the United States covers __________ behavior.

 

a.

the wrong

c.

too much

 

b.

immoral

d.

old fashioned

16. The overreach of the criminal law has several undesirable consequences including

 

a.

an overburdened justice system with   fewer resources for serious crimes

 

b.

a lack of public consensus over   criminalized behavior

 

c.

a black market and police corruption

 

d.

all of the above

 

e.

none of the above

17. A lack of public consensus over criminalized behavior that results from the overreach of the criminal law relates to

 

a.

lawfulness

c.

procedural justice

 

b.

legitimacy

d.

distributive justice

18. Many public health experts believe the problems associated with drinking, gambling and sex should be addressed

 

a.

as social, psychological and medical   problems

 

b.

through strategies involving threats and   coercive authority

 

c.

by the criminal justice system

 

d.

these are private choices that should   not be addressed by the CJS

19. The terms of the decriminalization debate involve what?

 

a.

whether the law should express basic   values of society

 

b.

the role of the criminal law and moral   standards

 

c.

responding to dramatic values shifts   from generation to generation

 

d.

which ideological beliefs are held by   liberals and conservatives

20. The issue regarding the use of the criminal law to express the values of society is

 

a.

whether this is outdated view of the law   that should be modified through decriminalization

 

b.

whether a government has enough power to   change the values of its citizens

 

c.

Not whether the law should express the   values but which values to express

 

d.

How to criminalize only those behaviors   that are considered morally wrong

 

e.

all of the above

21. Select the most accurate statement regarding the impact of decriminalizing public disorder crimes.

 

a.

research on zero-tolerance policing   indicates that decriminalization will lead to an increase in serious crimes

 

b.

research on policing indicates that the   attempt to decriminalize would be evaded by police and would simply lead to   arrests for alternative offenses

 

c.

decriminalization saves police time and   resources but this will not translate to a reduction in serious crime

 

d.

decriminalization has already been   mandated under Easter v. District of Columbia and early research   indicates a reduction in serious crime

22. Arrest trends regarding public order offenses indicate that

 

a.

they have contributed substantially to   crime declines in New York City

 

b.

police have been evading the mandate set   forth in Easter v. District of Columbia

 

c.

they have recently been on the upswing   in large urban areas

 

d.

they have been de-emphasized by police   for many years

 

23. The decriminalization of abortion in the U.S.

 

a.

occurred in the 1973 Supreme Court   decision Roe v. Wade

 

b.

occurred in the 1966 Supreme Court   decision Easter v. District of Columbia

 

c.

has already begun informally as the   number of arrests has fallen for years

 

d.

could never garner enough public support   to occur

24. Decriminalization of which type of offense has been argued to have contributed to the recent crime drop?

 

a.

public disorder crimes

c.

sex between consenting adults

 

b.

gambling

d.

abortion

25. Sodomy laws

 

a.

were declared constitutional in Lawrence   v. Texas

 

b.

were declared unconstitutional in Lawrence   v. Texas

 

c.

were declared constitutional in Easter   v. District of Columbia

 

d.

were declared unconstitutional in Easter   v. District of Columbia

26. The form of sex between consenting adults that may be connected to predatory crime is

 

a.

sodomy

c.

fornication

 

b.

homosexuality

d.

prostitution

27. In states that have created lotteries and authorized casino gambling

 

a.

many popular forms of illegal gambling   continue to flourish

 

b.

police resources have been freed to   focus on more serious crime

 

c.

evidence consistently indicates that   legalized gambling leads to higher crime rates

 

d.

The legitimacy of the CJS has increased   for Native American tribes

28. Benefits of decriminalizing gambling include

 

a.

a consistent decline in predatory crime

 

b.

undercutting the economic basis of   organized crime

 

c.

the tendency to also decriminalize   prostitution

 

d.

there are no benefits to decriminalizing   gambling

29. The argument that legal gambling leads to an increase in crime is

 

a.

substantiated by the data collected

 

b.

less likely to occur in casinos run by   Native Americans

 

c.

more likely to occur in cities with   riverboat gambling

 

d.

unsubstantiated as there is no   consistent evidence of the connection

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