History

Instructions:

1. Only use this book. (ebook attached) DO NOT USE ANY OUTSIDE SOURCE!!)

2. Use question-answer format—write out the question, then write a short essay answering it.  Do that for each question.

3. Use quotes and page citations for each chapter (essays that don’t will be graded down).

4. I would like 70-90% of the answers are quotes for each question. The rest can be your own writing with very simple English PLEASE!

5. The essay needs to be total of 8 pages minimum.

6. Double spaced Please.

 

Questions:

Ch.6, The Revolution Within

1. In what ways did political and religious liberties expand after the Revolution? (Democratizing Freedom + Toward Religious Toleration)

2. How did the Revolution affect the status of women? (Daughters of Liberty)

Ch.7, Founding a Nation (1783-1789)

1. What events and ideas led to the belief in 1786 and 1787 that the Articles of Confederation were not working well? (America Under the Confederation)

2. What were the major arguments in support of the Constitution given by the Federalists? What were the major arguments against the Constitution put forth by the Anti-Federalists? (The Ratification Debate and the Origin of the Bill of Rights)

Ch.14, A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War (1861-1865)

1. Describe how the North’s war aims evolved between 1861 and 1863, changing from simply preserving the Union to also ending slavery. What role did blacks play in winning the Civil War?  (The Coming of Emancipation)

 

2. How did the war effort and leadership problems affect the society and economy of the Confederacy?  (The Confederate Nation)

  • G I V E M E

    L I B E R T Y ! A N A M E R I C A N H I S T O R Y

    B r i e f F o u r t h E d i t i o n

    B W . W . N O R T O N & C O M P A N Y

    N E W Y O R K . L O N D O N

    E R I C F O N E R

    G I V E M E

    L I B E R T Y ! A N A M E R I C A N H I S T O R Y

    B r i e f F o u r t h E d i t i o n

    W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program— trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of 400 and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year— W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees.

    Copyright © 2014, 2012 by Eric Foner All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Fourth Edition Editor: Steve Forman Associate Editor: Justin Cahill Editorial Assistant: Penelope Lin Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Project Editor: Diane Cipollone Copy Editor: Elizabeth Dubrulle Marketing Manager: Sarah England Media Editors: Steve Hoge, Tacy Quinn Assistant Editor, Media: Stefani Wallace Production Manager: Sean Mintus Art Director: Rubina Yeh Designer: Chin-Yee Lai Photo Editor: Stephanie Romeo Photo Research: Donna Ranieri Permissions Manager: Megan Jackson Permissions Clearing: Bethany Salminen Composition and Layout: Jouve Manufacturing: Transcontinental

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    This edition: ISBN 978-0-393-92033-8 (pbk.)

    W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110-0017 wwnorton.com

    W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

    For my mother, Liza Foner (1909–2005), an accomplished artist who lived

    through most of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first

    E R I C F O N E R is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University, where he earned his B.A. and Ph.D. In his teaching and scholarship, he focuses on the Civil War and Reconstruction, slavery, and nineteenth-century America. Professor Foner’s publi- cations include Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War; Tom Paine and Revolutionary America; Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy; Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877; The Story of American Free- dom; and Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. His history of Recon- struction won the Los Angeles Times Book Award for History, the Bancroft Prize, and the Parkman Prize. He has served as president of the Organization of American Historians and the American Historical Association. In 2006 he received the Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching from Columbia University. His most recent book is The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, winner of the Lincoln Prize, the Bancroft Prize, and the Pulitzer Prize.

    A B O U T T H E A U T H O R

    C O N T E N T S

    Contents

    vi i

    1 . A N E W W O R L D . . . 1

    THE FIRST AMERICANS . . . 3

    The Settling of the Americas … 3  Indian Societies of the Americas … 3

     Mound Builders of the Mississippi River Valley … 5  Western Indians … 6

     Indians of Eastern North America … 6  Native American Religion … 7

     Land and Property … 9  Gender Relations … 10  European Views

    of the Indians … 10

    INDIAN FREEDOM, EUROPEAN FREEDOM .. . 11

    Indian Freedom … 11  Christian Liberty … 12  Freedom and

    Authority … 12  Liberty and Liberties … 13

    THE EXPANSION OF EUROPE . . . 13

    Chinese and Portuguese Navigation … 14  Freedom and Slavery in

    Africa … 14  The Voyages of Columbus … 16

    CONTACT . . . 16

    Columbus in the New World … 16  Exploration and Conquest … 17

     The Demographic Disaster … 19

    THE SPANISH EMPIRE . . . 20

    Governing Spanish America … 21  Colonists and Indians in Spanish

    America … 21  Justifications for Conquest … 22  Piety and Profit … 23

     Reforming the Empire … 24  Exploring North America … 25

     Spanish in Florida and the Southwest … 25  The Pueblo Revolt … 27

    Voices of Freedom: From Bartolomé de las Casas, History of the Indies

    (1528), and From “Declaration of Josephe” (December 19, 1681) … 28

    THE FRENCH AND DUTCH EMPIRES . . . 30

    French Colonization … 32  New France and the Indians … 32  The

    Dutch Empire … 34  Dutch Freedom … 34  The Dutch and Religious

    Toleration … 35  Settling New Netherland … 36  Features of European

    Settlement … 36

    REVIEW .. . 37

    2 . B E G I N N I N G S O F E N G L I S H A M E R I C A , 1 6 0 7 – 1 6 6 0 . . . 3 8

    ENGLAND AND THE NEW WORLD . . . 40

    Unifying the English Nation … 40  England and Ireland … 40  England

    and North America … 40  Motives for Colonization … 41  The Social

    Crisis … 42  Masterless Men … 43

    A b o u t t h e A u t h o r . . . v

    L i s t o f M a p s , T a b l e s , a n d F i g u r e s . . . x v i i i

    P r e f a c e . . . x x

    vii i

    Contents

    THE COMING OF THE ENGLISH .. . 43

    English Emigrants … 43  Indentured Servants … 44  Land and

    Liberty … 44  Englishmen and Indians … 45  The Transformation

    of Indian Life … 46

    SETTLING THE CHESAPEAKE .. . 47

    The Jamestown Colony … 47  Powhatan and Pocahontas … 48  The

    Uprising of 1622 … 49  A Tobacco Colony … 50  Women and the

    Family … 50  The Maryland Experiment … 52  Religion in

    Maryland … 52

    THE NEW ENGLAND WAY .. . 53

    The Rise of Puritanism … 53  Moral Liberty … 53  The Pilgrims at

    Plymouth … 54  The Great Migration … 55  The Puritan Family … 55 

    Government and Society in Massachusetts … 56  Church and State in

    Puritan Massachusetts … 58

    NEW ENGLANDERS DIVIDED .. . 59

    Roger Williams … 60  Rhode Island and Connecticut … 60  The Trials

    of Anne Hutchinson … 61  Puritans and Indians … 61

    Voices of Freedom: From “The Trial of Anne Hutchinson” (1637),

    and From John Winthrop, Speech to the Massachusetts General Court

    (July 3, 1645) … 62

    The Pequot War … 64  The New England Economy … 65  A Growing

    Commercial Society … 66

    RELIGION, POLITICS, AND FREEDOM … 67

    The Rights of Englishmen … 67  The English Civil War … 68 

    England’s Debate over Freedom … 68  The Civil War and English

    America … 69  Cromwell and the Empire … 70

    REVIEW .. . 71

    3 . C R E A T I N G A N G L O – A M E R I C A , 1 6 6 0 – 1 7 5 0 . . . 7 2

    GLOBAL COMPETITION AND THE EXPANSION OF

    ENGLAND’S EMPIRE . . . 74

    The Mercantilist System … 74  The Conquest of New Netherland … 74 

    New York and the Indians … 75  The Charter of Liberties … 77  The

    Founding of Carolina … 77  The Holy Experiment … 78  Land in

    Pennsylvania … 79

    ORIGINS OF AMERICAN SLAVERY .. . 80

    Englishmen and Africans … 80  Slavery in History … 81  Slavery

    in the West Indies … 81  Slavery and the Law … 82  The Rise of

    Chesapeake Slavery … 83  Bacon’s Rebellion: Land and Labor in

    Virginia … 83  A Slave Society … 85

    Contents

    ix

    COLONIES IN CRISIS . . . 86

    The Glorious Revolution … 86  The Glorious Revolution in America … 87 

    The Salem Witch Trials … 89

    THE GROWTH OF COLONIAL AMERICA .. . 90

    A Diverse Population … 90  The German Migration … 91

    Voices of Freedom: From Memorial against Non-English Immigration

    (December 1727), and From Letter by a Swiss-German Immigrant

    to Pennsylvania (August 23, 1769) … 92

    Religious Diversity … 95  Indian Life in Transition … 95  Regional

    Diversity … 96  The Consumer Revolution … 97  Colonial Cities … 97 

    An Atlantic World … 98

    SOCIAL CLASSES IN THE COLONIES . . . 99

    The Colonial Elite … 99  Anglicization … 100  Poverty in the

    Colonies … 100  The Middle Ranks … 101  Women and the

    Household Economy … 101  North America at Mid-Century … 102

    REVIEW .. . 103

    4 . S L A V E R Y , F R E E D O M , A N D T H E S T R U G G L E F O R E M P I R E , T O 1 7 6 3 . . . 1 0 4

    SLAVERY AND EMPIRE . . . 106

    Atlantic Trade … 106  Africa and the Slave Trade … 107  The Middle

    Passage … 109  Chesapeake Slavery … 109  The Rice Kingdom … 110

     The Georgia Experiment … 111  Slavery in the North … 112

    SLAVE CULTURES AND SLAVE RESISTANCE .. . 113

    Becoming African-American … 113  African Religion in Colonial America

    … 113  African-American Cultures … 114  Resistance to Slavery … 115

    AN EMPIRE OF FREEDOM .. . 116

    British Patriotism … 116  The British Constitution … 117  Republican

    Liberty … 117  Liberal Freedom … 118

    THE PUBLIC SPHERE . . . 119

    The Right to Vote … 119  Political Cultures … 120  The Rise of the

    Assemblies … 121  Politics in Public … 121  The Colonial Press … 122

     Freedom of Expression and Its Limits … 122  The Trial of Zenger … 123

     The American Enlightenment … 124

    THE GREAT AWAKENING .. . 125

    Religious Revivals … 125  The Preaching of Whitefield … 126  The

    Awakening’s Impact … 126

    IMPERIAL RIVALRIES . . . 127

    Spanish North America … 127  The Spanish in California … 127  The

    French Empire … 129

    x

    Contents

    BATTLE FOR THE CONTINENT .. . 130

    The Middle Ground … 130  The Seven Years’ War … 130  A World

    Transformed … 131  Pontiac’s Rebellion … 132  The Proclamation

    Line … 132

    Voices of Freedom: From Pontiac, Speeches (1762 and 1763), and

    From The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or

    Gustavus Vassa, the African (1789) … 134

    Pennsylvania and the Indians … 136  Colonial Identities … 137

    REVIEW .. . 138

    5 . T H E A M E R I C A N R E V O L U T I O N , 1 7 6 3 – 1 7 8 3 . . . 1 3 9

    THE CRISIS BEGINS . . . 140

    Consolidating the Empire … 140  Taxing the Colonies … 142 

    Taxation and Representation … 143  Liberty and Resistance … 144 

    The Regulators … 145

    THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION .. . 145

    The Townshend Crisis … 145  The Boston Massacre … 146  Wilkes

    and Liberty … 147  The Tea Act … 148  The Intolerable Acts … 148

    THE COMING OF INDEPENDENCE .. . 149

    The Continental Congress … 149  The Continental Association … 150

     The Sweets of Liberty … 150  The Outbreak of War … 151 

    Independence? … 151  Paine’s Common Sense … 152  The Declaration

    of Independence … 153  An Asylum for Mankind … 154  The Global

    Declaration of Independence … 155

    Voices of Freedom: From Thomas Paine, Common Sense (1776), and

    From Jonathan Boucher, A View of the Causes and Consequences of

    the American Revolution (1775) … 156

    SECURING INDEPENDENCE .. . 158

    The Balance of Power … 158  Blacks in the Revolution … 158  The

    First Years of the War … 159  The Battle of Saratoga … 161  The War

    in the South … 162  Victory at Last … 162

    REVIEW .. . 166

    6 . T H E R E V O L U T I O N W I T H I N . . . 1 6 7

    DEMOCRATIZING FREEDOM .. . 169

    The Dream of Equality … 169  Expanding the Political Nation … 169

     The Revolution in Pennsylvania … 170  The New Constitutions … 171

     The Right to Vote … 171

    TOWARD RELIGIOUS TOLERATION .. . 172

    Catholic Americans … 173  Separating Church and State … 173

     Jefferson and Religious Liberty … 174  Christian Republicanism … 175

     A Virtuous Citizenry … 175

    Contents

    xi

    DEFINING ECONOMIC FREEDOM .. . 176

    Toward Free Labor … 176  The Soul of a Republic … 176  The Politics

    of Inflation … 177  The Debate over Free Trade … 178

    THE LIMITS OF LIBERTY .. . 178

    Colonial Loyalists … 178  The Loyalists’ Plight … 179  The Indians’

    Revolution … 181

    SLAVERY AND THE REVOLUTION .. . 182

    The Language of Slavery and Freedom … 182  Obstacles to Abolition … 183

     The Cause of General Liberty … 183  Petitions for Freedom … 184

     British Emancipators … 185  Voluntary Emancipations … 185

    Voices of Freedom: From Abigail Adams to John Adams, Braintree,

    Mass. (March 31, 1776), and From Petitions of Slaves to the

    Massachusetts Legislature (1773 and 1777) … 186

    Abolition in the North … 188  Free Black Communities … 188

    DAUGHTERS OF LIBERTY .. . 189

    Revolutionary Women … 189  Republican Motherhood … 190  The

    Arduous Struggle for Liberty … 190

    REVIEW .. . 192

    7 . F O U N D I N G A N A T I O N , 1 7 8 3 – 1 7 9 1 . . . 1 9 3

    AMERICA UNDER THE CONFEDERATION .. . 195

    The Articles of Confederation … 195  Congress, Settlers, and the West …

    196  The Land Ordinances … 198  The Confederation’s Weaknesses …

    200  Shays’s Rebellion … 200  Nationalists of the 1780s … 201

    A NEW CONSTITUTION .. . 202

    The Structure of Government … 202  The Limits of Democracy … 203

     The Division and Separation of Powers … 204  The Debate over Slavery

    … 205  Slavery in the Constitution … 205  The Final Document … 207

    THE RATIFICATION DEBATE AND THE ORIGIN OF THE BILL

    OF RIGHTS . . . 208

    The Federalist … 208  “Extend the Sphere” … 208  The Anti-

    Federalists … 209

    Voices of Freedom: From David Ramsay, The History of the American

    Revolution (1789), and From James Winthrop, Anti-Federalist Essay

    Signed “Agrippa” (1787) … 210

    The Bill of Rights … 214

    “WE THE PEOPLE” . . . 215

    National Identity … 215  Indians in the New Nation … 215  Blacks and

    the Republic … 217  Jefferson, Slavery, and Race … 218  Principles of

    Freedom … 219

    REVIEW .. . 220

    xii

    Contents

    8 . S E C U R I N G T H E R E P U B L I C , 1 7 9 1 – 1 8 1 5 . . . 2 2 1

    POLITICS IN AN AGE OF PASSION .. . 222

    Hamilton’s Program … 223  The Emergence of Opposition … 223  The

    Jefferson-Hamilton Bargain … 224  The Impact of the French Revolution

    … 225  Political Parties … 226  The Whiskey Rebellion … 226  The

    Republican Party … 226  An Expanding Public Sphere … 227

    Voices of Freedom: From Judith Sargent Murray, “On the Equality of

    the Sexes” (1790), and From Address of the Democratic-Republican

    Society of Pennsylvania (December 18, 1794) … 228

    The Rights of Women … 230

    THE ADAMS PRESIDENCY .. . 231

    The Election of 1796 … 231  The “Reign of Witches” … 232  The

    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions … 233  The “Revolution of

    1800” … 233  Slavery and Politics … 234  The Haitian

    Revolution … 235  Gabriel’s Rebellion … 235

    JEFFERSON IN POWER .. . 236

    Judicial Review … 237  The Louisiana Purchase … 237  Lewis and

    Clark … 239  Incorporating Louisiana … 240  The Barbary Wars … 241

     The Embargo … 241  Madison and Pressure for War … 242

    THE “SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE” . . . 243

    The Indian Response … 243  The War of 1812 … 244  The War’s

    Aftermath … 246  The End of the Federalist Party … 247

    REVIEW .. . 248

    9 . T H E M A R K E T R E V O L U T I O N , 1 8 0 0 – 1 8 4 0 . . . 2 4 9

    A NEW ECONOMY .. . 251

    Roads and Steamboats … 251  The Erie Canal … 252  Railroads

    and the Telegraph … 254  The Rise of the West … 255  The Cotton

    Kingdom … 257

    MARKET SOCIETY .. . 259

    Commercial Farmers … 260  The Growth of Cities … 260  The Factory

    System … 261  The “Mill Girls” … 262  The Growth of Immigration …

    263  The Rise of Nativism … 265  The Transformation of Law … 266

    THE FREE INDIVIDUAL .. . 267

    The West and Freedom … 267  The Transcendentalists … 267  The

    Second Great Awakening … 268  The Awakening’s Impact … 269

    Voices of Freedom: From Ralph Waldo Emerson, “The American

    Scholar” (1837), and From “Factory Life as It Is, by an Operative”

    (1845) … 270

    The Emergence of Mormonism … 272

    Contents

    xi i i

    THE LIMITS OF PROSPERITY . . . 273

    Liberty and Prosperity … 273  Race and Opportunity … 274  The Cult

    of Domesticity … 275  Women and Work … 276  The Early Labor

    Movement … 277  The “Liberty of Living” … 277

    REVIEW .. . 279

    1 0 . D E M O C R A C Y I N A M E R I C A , 1 8 1 5 – 1 8 4 0 . . . 2 8 0

    THE TRIUMPH OF DEMOCRACY .. . 281

    Property and Democracy … 281  The Dorr War … 282  Tocqueville on

    Democracy … 282  The Information Revolution … 283  The Limits of

    Democracy … 284  A Racial Democracy … 284

    NATIONALISM AND ITS DISCONTENTS . . . 285

    The American System … 285  Banks and Money … 287  The Panic

    of 1819 … 287  The Missouri Controversy … 288

    NATION, SECTION, AND PARTY .. . 289

    The United States and the Latin American Wars of Independence … 289

     The Monroe Doctrine … 290  The Election of 1824 … 291

    Voices of Freedom: From President James Monroe, Annual Message

    to Congress (1823), and From John C. Calhoun, “A Disquisition on

    Government” (ca. 1845) … 292

    The Nationalism of John Quincy Adams … 294  “Liberty Is Power” … 294

     Martin Van Buren and the Democratic Party … 294  The Election

    of 1828 … 295

    THE AGE OF JACKSON .. . 296

    The Party System … 296  Democrats and Whigs … 297  Public and

    Private Freedom … 298  South Carolina and Nullification … 299

     Calhoun’s Political Theory … 299  The Nullification Crisis … 301

     Indian Removal … 301  The Supreme Court and the Indians … 302

    THE BANK WAR AND AFTER .. . 304

    Biddle’s Bank … 304  Pet Banks, the Economy, and the Panic

    of 1837 … 306  Van Buren in Office … 307  The Election of 1840 … 307

    REVIEW .. . 310

    1 1 . T H E P E C U L I A R I N S T I T U T I O N . . . 3 1 1

    THE OLD SOUTH .. . 312

    Cotton Is King … 313  The Second Middle Passage … 314  Slavery

    and the Nation … 314  The Southern Economy … 314  Plain Folk

    of the Old South … 316  The Planter Class … 317  The Paternalist

    Ethos … 318  The Proslavery Argument … 318  Abolition in the

    Americas … 320  Slavery and Liberty … 320

    xiv

    Contents

    LIFE UNDER SLAVERY .. . 321

    Slaves and the Law … 321  Conditions of Slave Life … 322  Free

    Blacks in the Old South … 322  Slave Labor … 323  Slavery in the

    Cities … 324  Maintaining Order … 325

    SLAVE CULTURE .. . 326

    The Slave Family … 326  The Threat of Sale … 327  Gender Roles

    among Slaves … 327  Slave Religion … 328  The Desire for Liberty … 329

    RESISTANCE TO SLAVERY .. . 330

    Forms of Resistance … 330

    Voices of Freedom: From Letter by Joseph Taper to Joseph Long

    (1840), and From “Slavery and the Bible” (1850) … 332

    The Amistad … 334  Slave Revolts … 335  Nat Turner’s Rebellion … 336

    REVIEW .. . 338

    1 2 . A N A G E O F R E F O R M , 1 8 2 0 – 1 8 4 0 . . . 3 3 9

    THE REFORM IMPULSE .. . 340

    Utopian Communities … 341  The Shakers … 343  Oneida … 343 

    Worldly Communities … 344  Religion and Reform … 345  Critics of

    Reform … 346  Reformers and Freedom … 346  The Invention of the

    Asylum … 347  The Common School … 347

    THE CRUSADE AGAINST SLAVERY .. . 348

    Colonization … 348  Militant Abolitionism … 349  Spreading the

    Abolitionist Message … 350  Slavery and Moral Suasion … 351  A

    New Vision of America … 352

    BLACK AND WHITE ABOLITIONISM .. . 353

    Black Abolitionists … 353  Gentlemen of Property and Standing … 354

    THE ORIGINS OF FEMINISM .. . 356

    The Rise of the Public Woman … 356  Women and Free Speech … 356 

    Women’s Rights … 357  Feminism and Freedom … 358  Women and

    Work … 358  The Slavery of Sex … 359

    Voices of Freedom: From Angelina Grimké, Letter in The Liberator

    (August 2, 1837), and From Frederick Douglass, Speech on July 5,

    1852, Rochester, New York … 360

    “Social Freedom” … 362  The Abolitionist Schism … 363

    REVIEW .. . 365

    1 3 . A H O U S E D I V I D E D , 1 8 4 0 – 1 8 6 1 . . . 3 6 6

    FRUITS OF MANIFEST DESTINY .. . 368

    Continental Expansion … 368  The Mexican Frontier: New Mexico and

    California … 368  The Texas Revolt … 370  The Election of 1844 … 370

     The Road to War … 372  The War and Its Critics … 372  Combat

    Contents

    xv

    in Mexico … 373  Race and Manifest Destiny … 374  Gold-Rush

    California … 376  Opening Japan … 377

    A DOSE OF ARSENIC . . . 378

    The Wilmot Proviso … 378  The Free Soil Appeal … 379  Crisis and

    Compromise … 380  The Great Debate … 380  The Fugitive Slave

    Issue … 381  Douglas and Popular Sovereignty … 382  The Kansas-

    Nebraska Act … 382

    THE RISE OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY .. . 383

    The Northern Economy … 383  The Rise and Fall of the Know-

    Nothings … 385  The Free Labor Ideology … 386  “Bleeding Kansas”

    and the Election of 1856 … 387

    THE EMERGENCE OF LINCOLN .. . 388

    The Dred Scott Decision … 389  Lincoln and Slavery … 390  The

    Lincoln-Douglas Campaign … 390  John Brown at Harpers Ferry … 391

    Voices of Freedom: From The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) … 392

    The Rise of Southern Nationalism … 394  The Election of 1860 … 395

    THE IMPENDING CRISIS . . . 397

    The Secession Movement … 397  The Secession Crisis … 398  And

    the War Came … 399

    REVIEW .. . 401

    1 4 . A N E W B I R T H O F F R E E D O M : T H E C I V I L W A R , 1 8 6 1 – 1 8 6 5 . . . 4 0 2

    THE FIRST MODERN WAR .. . 403

    The Two Combatants … 404  The Technology of War … 405  The

    Public and the War … 406  Mobilizing Resources … 407  Military

    Strategies … 407  The War Begins … 408  The War in the East,

    1862 … 409  The War in the West … 410

    THE COMING OF EMANCIPATION .. . 410

    Slavery and the War … 410  Steps toward Emancipation … 413 

    Lincoln’s Decision … 413  The Emancipation Proclamation … 414 

    Enlisting Black Troops … 416  The Black Soldier … 416

    THE SECOND AMERICAN REVOLUTION .. . 417

    Liberty, Union, and Nation … 418  The War and American Religion … 419

    Voices of Freedom: From Letter of Thomas F. Drayton (April 17,

    1861), and From Abraham Lincoln, Address at Sanitary Fair,

    Baltimore (April 18, 1864) … 420

    Liberty in Wartime … 422  The North’s Transformation … 422 

    Government and the Economy … 423  The War and Native

    Americans … 423  A New Financial System … 425  Women and

    the War … 425  The Divided North … 426

    xvi

    Contents

    THE CONFEDERATE NATION .. . 428

    Leadership and Government … 428  The Inner Civil War … 428 

    Economic Problems … 429  Women and the Confederacy … 430 

    Black Soldiers for the Confederacy … 431

    TURNING POINTS . . . 431

    Gettysburg and Vicksburg … 431  1864 … 433

    REHEARSALS FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND THE END

    OF THE WAR .. . 434

    The Sea Islands Experiment … 434  Wartime Reconstruction in the West

    … 435  The Politics of Wartime Reconstruction … 435  Victory at Last …

    436  The War and the World … 438  The War in American History … 438

    REVIEW .. . 440

    1 5 . “ W H A T I S F R E E D O M ? ” : R E C O N S T R U C T I O N , 1 8 6 5 – 1 8 7 7 . . . 4 4 1

    THE MEANING OF FREEDOM .. . 443

    Families in Freedom … 443  Church and School … 444  Political

    Freedom … 444  Land, Labor, and Freedom … 445  Masters without

    Slaves … 445  The Free Labor Vision … 447  The Freedmen’s Bureau

    … 447  The Failure of Land Reform … 448  The White Farmer … 449

    Voices of Freedom: From Petition of Committee in Behalf of the

    Freedmen to Andrew Johnson (1865), and From A Sharecropping

    Contract (1866) … 450

    Aftermath of Slavery … 453

    THE MAKING OF RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION .. . 454

    Andrew Johnson … 454  The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction …

    454  The Black Codes … 455  The Radical Republicans … 456  The

    Origins of Civil Rights … 456  The Fourteenth Amendment … 457

     The Reconstruction Act … 458  Impeachment and the Election

    of Grant … 458  The Fifteenth Amendment … 460  The “Great

    Constitutional Revolution” … 461  The Rights of Women … 461

    RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN THE SOUTH .. . 462

    “The Tocsin of Freedom” … 462  The Black Officeholder … 464

     Carpetbaggers and Scalawags … 464  Southern Republicans in

    Power … 465  The Quest for Prosperity … 465

    THE OVERTHROW OF RECONSTRUCTION .. . 466

    Reconstruction’s Opponents … 466  “A Reign of Terror” … 467

     The Liberal Republicans … 469  The North’s Retreat … 470  The

    Triumph of the Redeemers … 471  The Disputed Election and Bargain

    of 1877 … 472  The End of Reconstruction … 473

    REVIEW .. . 474

    Contents

    xvii

    A P P E N D I X

    DOCUMENTS

    The Declaration of Independence (1776) … A-2

    The Constitution of The United States (1787) … A-5

    From George Washington’s Farewell Address (1796) … A-17

    The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments And Resolutions (1848) … A-22

    From Frederick Douglass’s “What, To the Slave, Is The Fourth Of July?”

    Speech (1852) … A-25 The Gettysburg Address (1863) … A-29

    Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address (1865) … A-30

    The Populist Platform of 1892 … A-31

    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address (1933) … A-34

    From The Program For The March On Washington For Jobs And Freedom

    (1963) … A-37 Ronald Reagan’s First Inaugural Address (1981) … A-38

    Barack Obama’s First Inaugural Address (2009) … A-42

    TABLES AND FIGURES

    Presidential Elections … A-46

    Admission of States … A-54

    Population of the United States … A-55

    Historical Statistics of The United States:

    Labor Force—Selected Characteristics Expressed As A Percentage

    of The Labor Force, 1800–2010 … A-56

    Immigration, By Origin … A-56

    Unemployment Rate, 1890–2013 … A-57

    Union Membership As A Percentage Of Nonagricultural Employment,

    1880–2012 … A-57

    Voter Participation in Presidential Elections 1824–2012 … A-57

    Birthrate, 1820–2011 … A-57

    S U G G E S T E D R E A D I N G S … A – 5 9

    G L O S S A R Y … A – 6 7

    C R E D I T S … A – 9 5

    I N D E X … A – 9 9

    xvii i

    List of Maps, Tables, and Figures

    M A P S

    CHAPTER 1

    The First Americans … 4

    Native Ways of Life, ca. 1500 … 8

    The Old World on the Eve of American

    Colonization, ca. 1500 … 15

    Voyages of Discovery … 18

    Early Spanish Conquests and Explorations in the

    New World … 26

    The New World—New France and New

    Netherland, ca. 1650 … 31

    CHAPTER 2

    English Settlement in the Chesapeake,

    ca. 1650 … 48

    English Settlement in New England,

    ca. 1640 … 59

    CHAPTER 3

    Eastern North America in the Seventeenth and

    Early Eighteenth Centuries … 76

    European Settlement and Ethnic Diversity on the

    Atlantic Coast of North America, 1760 … 94

    CHAPTER 4

    Atlantic Trading Routes … 107

    The Slave Trade in the Atlantic World,

    1460–1770 … 108

    European Empires in North America,

    ca. 1750 … 128

    Eastern North America after the Peace of

    Paris, 1763 … 133

    CHAPTER 5

    The Revolutionary War in the North,

    1775–1781 … 160

    The Revolutionary War in the South,

    1775–1781 … 163

    North America, 1783 … 164

    CHAPTER 6

    Loyalism in the American Revolution … 180

    CHAPTER 7

    Western Lands, 1782–1802 … 197

    Western Ordinances, 1785–1787 … 199

    Ratification of the Constitution … 213

    CHAPTER 8

    The Presidential Election of 1800 … 234

    The Louisiana Purchase … 239

    The War of 1812 … 245

    CHAPTER 9

    The Market Revolution: Roads and Canals,

    1840 … 253

    Travel Times from New York City in 1800

    and 1830 … 256

    The Market Revolution: The Spread of

    Cotton Cultivation, 1820–1840 … 258

    Cotton Mills, 1820s … 263

    CHAPTER 10

    The Missouri Compromise, 1820 … 289

    The Presidential Election of 1824 … 291

    The Presidential Election of 1828 … 296

    Indian Removals, 1830–1840 … 302

    The Presidential Election of 1840 … 308

    CHAPTER 11

    Slave Population, 1860 … 315

    Size of Slaveholdings, 1860 … 319

    Major Crops of the South, 1860 … 325

    Slave Resistance in the Nineteenth-Century

    Atlantic World … 331

    CHAPTER 12

    Utopian Communities, Mid-Nineteenth

    Century … 342

    CHAPTER 13

    The Trans-Mississippi West, 1830s–1840s … 369

    The Mexican War, 1846–1848 … 374

    Continental Expansion through 1853 … 375

    The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 … 383

    Lists of Maps, Tables, and Figures

    xix

    The Railroad Network, 1850s … 384

    The Presidential Election of 1856 … 389

    The Presidential Election of 1860 … 396

    CHAPTER 14

    The Secession of Southern States, 1860–1861 …

    404

    The Civil War in the East, 1861–1862 … 409

    The Civil War in the West, 1861–1862 … 411

    The Emancipation Proclamation … 414

    The Civil War, 1863 … 432

    The Civil War, Late 1864–1865 … 437

    CHAPTER 15

    The Barrow Plantation … 446

    Sharecropping in the South,

    1880 … 452

    The Presidential Election of 1868 … 460

    Reconstruction in the South,

    1867–1877 … 471

    The Presidential Election of 1876 … 472

    T A B L E S A N D F I G U R E S

    CHAPTER 1

    Table 1.1 Estimated Regional Populations:

    The Americas, ca. 1500 … 24

    Table 1.2 Estimated Regional Populations:

    The World, ca. 1500 … 25

    CHAPTER 3

    Table 3.1 Origins and Status of Migrants

    to British North American Colonies,

    1700–1775 … 91

    CHAPTER 4

    Table 4.1 Slave Population as Percentage of

    Total Population of Original Thirteen

    Colonies, 1770 … 112

    CHAPTER 7

    Table 7.1 Total Population and Black Population

    of the United States, 1790 … 217

    CHAPTER 9

    Table 9.1 Population Growth of Selected Western

    States, 1800–1850 (Excluding Indians)… 257

    Table 9.2 Total Number of Immigrants by

    Five-Year Period … 264

    Figure 9.1 Sources of Immigration, 1850 … 265

    CHAPTER 11

    Table 11.1 Growth of the Slave Population … 314

    Table 11.2 Slaveholding, 1850 (in Round

    Numbers) … 318

    CHAPTER 14

    Figure 14.1 Resources for War: Union versus

    Confederacy … 407

    xx

    Preface

    P R E FA C E

    Since it originally appeared late in 2004, Give Me Liberty! An American History has gone through three editions and been adopted for use in survey courses at close to one thousand two- and four-year colleges in the United States, as well as a good number overseas. Of course, I am extremely gratified by this response. The book offers students a clear narra- tive of American history from the earliest days of European exploration and conquest of the New World to the first decade of the twenty-first century. Its central theme is the changing contours of American freedom.

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