Welter, EAS 160A3
Intro to Chinese Civilization
Mon., April 2, 2018
SUMMER 2018 EAST ASIAN STUDIES EAS 130 – ASIAN RELIGIONS EAS 160A1 – THE WORLDS OF BUDDHISM EAS 160A2 – WRITING SYSTEMS OF THE WORLD EAS 160A3 – CHINESE CIVILIZATION EAS 160A5 – LANGUAGES AND CULTURES OF EAST ASIA EAS 222 – INTRODUCTION TO ZEN BUDDHISM EAS 451 – THE UNITED STATES AND EAST ASIA: 1840 TO THE PRESENT CHINESE CHN 101 – ELEMENTARY CHINESE CHN 102 – ELEMENTARY CHINESE CHN 241 – INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE RELIGIONS CHN 245 – CHINESE POPULAR CULTURE CHN 483 – CONFUCIANISM: THE CLASSICAL PERIOD JAPANESE JPN 101 – ELEMENTARY JAPANESE JPN 102 – ELEMENTARY JAPANESE JPN 245 – JAPANESE ANIME AND VISUAL CULTURE
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Zhu Xi and Neo- Confucianism
The Confucian Renaissance
“What is Religion”?
“What is Religion”? A Chinese Perspective
ØThe term “religion” coined in Meiji Japan as shûkyô , pronounced in modern Chinese, zongjiao.
ØCombined logographs formed a new category indicating exclusive allegiance common to the definition of religion in the West.
Etymology of zongjiao/shūkyō Two elements of the logograph zong :
Ø upper element (the “radical”) , signifying the “roof” of a building;
Ø lower element , which is itself an independent logograph (pronounced shi) meaning “to show, reveal; to announce, report.”
Ø Taken together, the upper element indicates the roof of an ancestral shrine;
Ø the lower element indicates offerings presented to the ancestors while reporting (i.e., praying) to them.
Ø The logograph zong is thus associated with veneration of ancestors––the core of traditional Chinese religiosity.
Etymology of zongjiao/shūkyō cont’d. Two elements of the logograph jiao : Øleft element, xiao , refers to “filial piety,” the cardinal Confucian virtue of respect for one’s parents, exhibited through actions and attitudes exhibited both in this life and after they have departed, Øbroken down further into upper and lower sub-elements, one finds an abbreviated form of the character for “elder,” lao , over the character for zi , “son” or “child.”
Øright element, wen , contains a range of meanings: “letters, literature, writing, culture.”
Ø Taken as a whole, jiao indicates the passing down of writings imbued with cultural values (i.e., traditions) from elders to children.
Ø à Lurking Confucian undertones––importance of wen in Chinese tradition
“The Confucian had no desire to be ‘saved’ either from the migration of souls or from punishment in
the beyond. Both ideas were unknown to Confucianism. The Confucian wished neither for
salvation from life, which was affirmed, nor salvation from the social world, which was
accepted. He thought of prudently mastering the opportunities of this world through self-
1. Classic of Poetry
2. Classic of Changes
3. Classic of Documents
4. Book of Rites
5. Spring and Autumn Annals
14th Neo-Confucian moral philosophy is taught in civil examinations, making it the orthodox form of Confucianism for the remainder of imperial China
Posthumous Career of Confucius 479 BCE Duke Ai orders Confucius’ home to be
preserved as a temple to his spirit 479 BCE Death of Confucius c. 330 BCE
141 BCE – 87 BCE
Mencius spreads Confucianism throughout China Han Emperor Wudi abandons Legalism in favor of Confucianism.
c. 100 First mention of cult of Confucius: Han emperor sends representative to venerate Confucius’ grave
124 Emperor Han Wudi makes Confucian texts the basis of training for bureaucrats
618 Tang dynasty develops official liturgy for worship and sacrifices at Confucian temples
c. 1180 Neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi promotes the Four Books over the traditional Five Classics
The Buddhist Challenge Buddhism: new ways of knowing & paths to salvation • Chanà self-power (meditation
& insight) • Pure Landà other power
(recitation of Omitofu’s name) • Public teaching (sutras) • Private “mind to mind”
Mahākāśyapa & Ānanda
Passed palace examination at age 18, suffered career setbacks
Founded White Deer Grotto Academy
Zhu Xi’s Thought
“Li,” or “principle”” ( )
“Investigation of things”
Added “Four Books” to canon:
1. Analects of Confucius
3. Doctrine of the Mean
4. Great Learning
Doctrine of the Mean and the Great Learning
❖ Originally sections of Book of Rites
❖ Doctrine: Remaining morally constant
❖ Great Learning: “Learning” or cultivating the self
The Great Learning What the Great Learning teaches is
❖ to illustrate illustrious virtue;
to renovate the people; and
to rest in the highest excellence.
The point where to rest being known, the object of pursuit is then determined; and, that being determined, a calm unperturbedness may be attained to.
The Great Learning
To that calmness there will succeed a tranquil repose. In that repose there may be careful deliberation, and that deliberation will be followed by the attainment of the desired end.
Things have their root and their branches. Affairs have their end and their beginning. To know what is first and what is last will lead near to what is taught in the Great Learning.
The Great Learning The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the kingdom first ordered well their own states. Wishing to order well their states, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.
The Great Learning Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their states were rightly governed. Their states being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy.
CONFUCIAN PROGRAM OF DEVELOPMENT ACCORDING TO “THE GREAT LEARNING” ( )
Creation of the junzi
1. Investigation of things 2. Extension of knowledge 3. Make thoughts sincere 4. Rectify the mind 5. Develop the self 6. Manage the family 7. Govern the state 8. Have peace prevail throughout the land
“Confucianism: One or Many”? Ø Pre-Confucius (Five Classics)
Ø Confucius (Analects, etc.)
Ø “Neo-Confucianism” (Zhu Xi, Four Books, principle)
“Confucianism” encompasses many schools of thought
It also leaves room for interpretation, such as Zhu Xi’s “Neo-Confucianism” (“study of principle”)
It responded to the challenges of other teachings such as Buddhism
and could even be seen as a state-sponsored religion.
❖ Which of the following is NOT one of the Four Books?
A. The Analects
B. The Classic of Songs (Poetry)
C. The Doctrine of the Mean
D. The Great Learning