History

For this week’s discussion blog, we will draw on materials from both Modules 9 and 10. Please answer the following questions:

1. Discuss how the American Indian Civil Rights movement emerged based on materials from Modules 9 and 10.

2. Next, describe the emergence of the American Indian Movement (AIM) and their goals.

3. Describe the goals and significance of the Occupation of Alcatraz based on this week’s materials.

4. After, thoroughly interpret and rhetorically analyze the Alcatraz Proclamation. Consider the following: tone, word choice, historical allusions, intended audience, context etc.

5. Lastly, please share your overall thoughts/reactions to this week’s materials.

Don’t forget that your initial post in response to the prompt must be at least 300 words minimum,

1)

Read “Letter-exchange between Pope Innocent IV and Guyuk-khan” and make a summary or outline (can be a bulleted list) of the reasons put forth by the Mongol khan

to reject the pope’s peace proposal.

____________________________________

(2)

Read “Pegolotti_The Practice of Commerce” and make a list of the explicit things that Pegolotti thinks one would need while traveling to China for trade purposes, and then another with anything you can infer from the text regarding China, its trade with foreigners, commercial relations East-West etc.

We will go over these documents in class.

  • Letter Exchange between Pope Innocent IV and Güyük Khan (1245-1246)

    In the late 1230s, the Mongols began raiding Eastern Europe, besieging, conquering and sacking cities and towns, and slaughtering their populations. Between 1236 and 1242, their military campaigns had wrought major devastations across Russia, Poland, Hungary and the Balkans. Polish forces sought to stop the Mongol onslaught but were crushed at Liegnitz/Legnica (April 9th, 1241); the Hungarian army met the same fate a few days later, at the Battle of Mohi (April 11th, 1241). The Mongol victories opened up Central Europe to Mongol raids, leading to even more destruction, displacement and massacres. These developments terrified Western political and religious leaders. Although the Mongols withdrew from most of the Balkans and Central Europe soon afterwards (as a result of internal struggles within their empire), the shock of their brutal invasions and conquests remained. Seeking to gauge the intentions of the conquerors and convince them to cease their invasion of the West, Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254) sent an embassy with two letters to the Mongol Khan Güyük. Below are excerpts from the second papal letter and the khan’s response.

    Pope Innocent IV to Güyük Khan:

    […] It is not without cause that we are driven to express in strong terms our amazement that you have

    invaded many countries belonging both to Christians and to others, and are laying them waste in a horrible

    desolation, and with a fury still unabated you do not cease from stretching out your destroying hand to

    more distant lands, but, breaking the bond of natural ties, sparing neither sex nor age, you rage against all indiscriminately with the sword of chastisement.

    We, therefore, following the example of the King of Peace [i.e. Jesus Christ], and desiring that all men

    should live united in concord in the fear of God, do admonish, beg and earnestly beseech all of you that for

    the future you desist entirely from assaults of this kind and especially from the persecution of Christians,

    and that after so many and such grievous offenses you conciliate by a fitting penance the wrath of Divine

    Majesty, which without doubt you have seriously aroused by such provocation. Nor should you be

    emboldened to commit further savagery by the fact that when the sword of your might has raged against

    other men Almighty God has up to the present allowed various nations to fall before your face. For

    sometimes He refrains from chastising the proud in this world for the moment, for this reason, that if they

    neglect to humble themselves of their own accord He may not only no longer put off the punishment of their wickedness in this life but may also take greater vengeance in the world to come.

    On this account we have thought fit to send to you our beloved son [the Franciscan Giovanni DiPlano

    Carpini] and his companions the bearers of this letter, men remarkable for their religious spirit, comely in

    their virtue and gifted with the knowledge of the Holy Scripture. Receive them kindly and treat them with

    honor out of reverence for God, indeed as if receiving us in their persons, and deal honestly with them in

    those matters of which they will speak to you on our behalf. And when you have had profitable discussions

    with them concerning the aforesaid affairs, especially those pertaining to peace, make fully known to us

    through these same Friars what moved you to destroy other nations and what your intentions are for the

    future, furnishing them with a safe-conduct and other necessities on both their outward and return journey, so that they can safely make their way back to our presence when they wish.

    Lyons, 13th March 1245

    ***

    2

    Güyük Khan to Pope Innocent IV:

    We, by the power of the Eternal God, the Universal Khan of all the nations, command the following:

    If this reaches peoples who have made their submission, let them respect and stand in awe of it.

    This is a directive sent to the great Pope; may he know and pay heed. The petition of the assembly

    convened in your lands has been heard from your emissaries.

    If the bearer of this petition reaches you with his own report, you, who are the Great Pope, together with all

    the princes, must come in person to serve us. At that time, I shall make known all the commands of our

    people.

    Furthermore, you have said it would be well for us to become Christians. You write to me in person about

    this matter, and have addressed to me a request to this effect. This, your request, we cannot understand.

    You have written me these words: “You have attacked all the territories of the Magyars and other

    Christians, at which I am astonished. Tell me, what was their crime?” These, your words, we likewise

    cannot understand.

    Chinggis Khan and Ogatai Khakan carried out the commands of Heaven, that all the world should be

    subordinated to the Mongols. But those whom you name would not believe the commands of Heaven.

    Those of whom you speak showed themselves highly presumptuous and slew our envoys. Therefore, in

    accordance with the commands of the Eternal Heaven, the inhabitants of the aforesaid countries have been

    slain and annihilated. If not by the commands of Heaven, how can anyone slay or conquer out of his own

    strength?

    And when you say: “I am a Christian. I pray to God. I reject other gods,” how do you know who is pleasing

    to God, whom He would favor and on whom He would exercise mercy? How can you know it, that you

    dare to express such an opinion?

    Through the decision of the Eternal Heaven, all lands from the rising of the sun to its setting have been

    given to us and we own them. How could anyone achieve anything if not in accordance with the commands

    of Heaven? Now, however, you must say with a sincere heart: “We will become subject to you, and will

    place our powers at your disposal.”

    You, in person, at the head of the [European] monarchs – all of you, without exception – must come to pay

    homage to me and to serve me. Then we shall take note of your submission. If, however, you do not obey

    the commands of Heaven and act against our command, we shall know that you are our enemies.

    This is what we have to tell you. If you fail to act in accordance therewith, how can we foresee what will

    happen to you? Heaven alone knows.

    Written at the end of Jumada II 644 of the Hijra/November 1246

    https://ballandalus.wordpress.com/2015/06/01/mongol-papal-encounter-letter-exchange-between- pope-innocent-iv-and-guyuk-khan-in-1245-1246/ [Christopher Dawson ed., The Mongol Mission: Narratives and Letters of the Franciscan Missionaries in Mongolia and China in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries (New York, 1955) 75-76]

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