I Identification and Significance.
1. The Transition to the All-Steel, Enclosed Automobile during the 1920s
2. The Automobile and the Origins of the Great Depression
3. The Duesenberg Automobile
4. The Chrysler Airflow
5. “Sit down” at Flint, Michigan, and the Origins of the UAW
6. Pre-WWII Blues Music and the Automobile
7. The Jeep
7. WWII Gasoline Rationing and the Black Market
8. Preston Tucker and the Tucker ‘48
9. Madman Muntz
10. Henry Gregor Felsen’s Hot Rod (1950)
11. African-Americans, the Automobile, and Civil Rights during the 1950s
12. General Curtis Lemay and Sports Car Caring during the 1950s
13. Don Stanford’s The Red Car (1954)
Which of the following statements was true of the Homestead Strike? Answer A. Carnegie had laid off a large number of workers, and that had triggered the strike. B. During the strike, an anarchist assassinated Carnegie. C. It took place at Carnegie’s steel plant in Chicago. D. Even guards from the famous Pinkerton Agency refused to take the job of entering the plant. E. The state militia was sent in to allow strikebreakers to come in. During the Civil War, Congress took advantage of the absence of southerners in the House and Senate to do all of the following, EXCEPT: Answer A. develop a national currency. B. pass several national internal improvement projects. C. authorize the construction of land grant universities. D. support scientific training and research. E. prohibit child labor. General George Custer and his division were annihilated by a group of Sioux and Cheyenne warriors led by Answer A. Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. B. Chief Pontiac. C. Tecumseh. D. Nez Perce. E. Chief Joseph. Between 1860 and 1915, America’s rail lines grew from 30,000 miles of track to more than Answer A. 100,000 miles. B. 150,000 miles. C. 200,000 miles. D. 300,000 miles. E. 250,000 miles. The Chinese who settled in the West and became the victims of anti-Chinese sentiments had, in many cases, been recruited by Americans to Answer A. establish laundries in the new boomtowns of California. B. help build the western portion of the Transcontinental Railroad. C. help cultivate the Great Plains. D. work as laborers and servants for the wealthy. E. work as gold panners during the Gold Rush. Andrew Carnegie’s steel was used in which of the following American projects? Answer A. Statue of Liberty B. Lincoln Monument C. White House D. Brooklyn Bridge E. Transcontinental Railroad The final act in the U.S. war against the Plains Indians took place at Answer A. the Canadian border. B. Wounded Knee. C. Pine Ridge. D. Little Big Horn. E. Sand Creek. Abilene, Kansas was the nation’s first “cow town” because Answer A. barbed wire was invented here. B. Abilene city-bosses had lobbied Congress to become the nation’s first town for cattle shipment. C. most cowboys came from Kansas. D. from here, cattle could be shipped by rail to meatpacking plants in Chicago. E. the town had an old and established meatpacking tradition. The entrepreneurs that served as the main stimulants of economic growth in the United States between 1865 and 1915 were all of the following, EXCEPT: Answer A. aggressive. B. far-sighted. C. incorruptible. D. opportunistic. E. innovative The Transcontinental Railroad was completed in Answer A. 1877. B. 1864. C. 1873. D. 1869. E. 1859. The person who cornered the market on oil refining in the late 1800s was Answer A. John D. Rockefeller. B. Leland Stanford. C. Cornelius Vanderbilt. D. William Randolph Hearst. E. Andrew Carnegie. The Grange was Answer A. a nativist organization committed to the exclusion of Chinese from the United States. B. the first farmers’ group that turned to politics to find answers for their many economic problems. C. a southern group comparable to the Ku Klux Klan. D. an organization that tried to unionize cowboys. E. a rural chain of savings banks for farmers. America’s oil boom began when Edwin Drake struck oil while drilling in Answer A. Kentucky. B. Texas. C. California. D. Pennsylvania. E. Louisiana. Andrew Carnegie made his fortune with the help of the Bessemer converter which Answer A. refined large amounts of sugar within less than 2 minutes. B. refined crude oil into gasoline, diesel, and lubricants. C. identified large coal deposits as far as 2000 feet below ground. D. transformed large quantities of iron ore into steel by using extremely hot air. E. employed the assembly line technique for rapid manufacturing processes. Within twenty years of the first oil discovery, ____ Oil Company controlled 90 percent of the country’s petroleum. Answer A. American Standard B. National C. American Petroleum D. U.S. Oil E. Standard Anarchists believe that Answer A. government should be involved in people’s private lives. B. all governments need a bit of rebellion every once in a while. C. all factories should be run by their workers. D. all major industries and infrastructure should be under government control. E. governments are unnecessary and should be abolished. The Dawes Act Answer A. introduced silver to the national currency. B. established Indian reservations across the country. C. established segregation in all southern states. D. was designed to stimulate the development of Southern Industry. E. divided tribal lands among native families and put the land titles in a federal trust. In 1901, Carnegie sold his steel company for more than Answer A. $100 million. B. $750,000. C. $1 billion. D. $10 million. E. $400 million. Which of these was not a major reason for immigration to America in the late 1800s and early 1900s? Answer A. A rise in anti-Semitism, especially in Russia. B. Europe’s Industrial Revolution, which drew too many people to the cities, where they could not find jobs. C. A large increase in population across Europe. D. The lure of economic opportunity in America. E. American advertisements placed in Western European newspapers Which was true for most immigrants to America? Answer A. Most had little knowledge of English, so they commanded only the lowest paying jobs. B. Most had little education. C. Most remained close to the cities where they had landed the East coast’s large cities. D. All of these statements were true of late 19th century immigrants. E. They usually had little or no understanding of American culture The Pullman Strike failed because Answer A. the company owner George Pullman simply rehired the men he had fired before the breakout of the strike. B. workers lacked conviction for their cause. C. anarchists threw bombs at police during the event. D. President Grover Cleveland sent in troops to break the strike’s center in Chicago. E. the leadership of Socialist Eugene Debs was too heavy-handed. Robber Barons were men who Answer A. built mafia-like organizations in the nation’s burgeoning cities. B. claimed ties to European aristocracies. C. amassed large fortunes between 1865 and 1900 with ruthlessness and ingenuity. D. had made their riches during the Civil War. E. fought bitterly against the expansion of suffrage. The Sand Creek Massacre was so named because Answer A. most of the Indians died unarmed. B. military leaders knew that if they used the word “massacre,” people in surrounding areas would take their warnings about the “savages” more seriously. C. Indians wanted to stir up anger among the local tribes so they could band together and push the white soldiers out. D. Arapahoe Indians attacked a settlement at Sand Creek and murdered 100 white pioneers with whom they had recently been trading. E. Colorado militiamen murdered more than 200 Cheyenne Indians who were supposed to be under the Army’s protection. Congress awarded more than 200 million acres to investors who wanted to move westward and Answer A. grow wheat. B. establish towns. C. raise hogs. D. grow corn. E. build railroads. The Tweed Ring, working out of Tammany Hall, was Answer A. a Chicago political machine. B. a political machine designed to help workers get jobs. C. a haven for newly arrived immigrants. D. famously run by “Boss Tweed.” E. noted for helping the poor and the destitute. The first mail-order business was Answer A. Sears and Roebuck. B. J.C. Penney. C. Sears. D. Montgomery Ward. E. Roebuck. Social Darwinism usually led to practices that discriminated against all of the following except Answer A. immigrants. B. women. C. young males. D. Indians. E. African Americans. The Homestead Act of 1862 provided a way for settlers to move West, occupy land for five years, and then claim as their own a total of Answer A. 1600 acres. B. 640 acres. C. 160 acres. D. 120 acres. E. 4,000 acres. The term Gilded Age was coined by Answer A. Mark Twain. B. Herbert Spencer. C. Charles Darwin. D. William M. Tweed. E. Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie’s business model of controlling all aspects of the steel industry, from iron ore extraction to steel delivery, is known as Answer A. a monopoly. B. vertical integration. C. profit consolidation. D. absolute control. E. horizontal integration.