History

G I V E M E L I B E R T Y ! A N A M E R I C A N H I S T O R Y  B r i e f F o u r t h E d i t i o n G I V E M E L I B E R T Y ! A N A M E R I C A N H I S T O R Y  B r i e f F o u r t h E d i t i o n E R I C F O N E R B W . W . N O R T O N & C O M P A N Y N E W Y O R K . L O N D O N For my mother, Liza Foner (1909–2005), an accomplished artist who lived through most of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program— trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of 400 and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year— W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2014, 2012 by Eric Foner All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Fourth Edition Editor: Steve Forman Associate Editor: Justin Cahill Editorial Assistant: Penelope Lin Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Project Editor: Diane Cipollone Copy Editor: Elizabeth Dubrulle Marketing Manager: Sarah England Media Editors: Steve Hoge, Tacy Quinn Assistant Editor, Media: Stefani Wallace Production Manager: Sean Mintus Art Director: Rubina Yeh Designer: Chin-Yee Lai Photo Editor: Stephanie Romeo Photo Research: Donna Ranieri Permissions Manager: Megan Jackson Permissions Clearing: Bethany Salminen Composition and Layout: Jouve Manufacturing: Transcontinental Since this page cannot accommodate all of the copyright notices, the Credits pages at the end of the book constitute an extension of the copyright page. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for. This edition: ISBN 978-0-393-92034-5 (pbk.) W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110-0017 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 A B O U T T H E A U T H O R  E R I C F O N E R is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University, where he earned his B.A. and Ph.D. In his teaching and scholarship, he focuses on the Civil War and Reconstruction, slavery, and nineteenth-century America. Professor Foner’s publi- cations include Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War; Tom Paine and Revolutionary America; Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy; Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877; The Story of American Free- dom; and Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. His history of Recon- struction won the Los Angeles Times Book Award for History, the Bancroft Prize, and the Parkman Prize. He has served as president of the Organization of American Historians and the American Historical Association. In 2006 he received the Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching from Columbia University. His most recent book is The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, winner of the Lincoln Prize, the Bancroft Prize, and the Pulitzer Prize.  C O N T E N T S  A b o u t t h e A u t h o r . . . v L i s t o f M a p s , T a b l e s , a n d F i g u r e s . . . x v i i i P r e f a c e . . . x x 1 5 . “ W H A T I S F R E E D O M ? ” : R E C O N S T R U C T I O N , 1 8 6 5 – 1 8 7 7 . . . 4 4 1 T H E M E A N I N G O F F R E E D O M . . . 443 Families in Freedom … 443  Church and School … 444  Political Freedom … 444  Land, Labor, and Freedom … 445  Masters without Slaves … 445  The Free Labor Vision … 447  The Freedmen’s Bureau … 447  The Failure of Land Reform … 448  The White Farmer … 449 Voices of Freedom: From Petition of Committee in Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew Johnson (1865), and From A Sharecropping Contract (1866) … 450 Aftermath of Slavery … 453 T H E M A K I N G O F R A D I C A L R E C O N S T R U C T I O N . . . 454 Andrew Johnson … 454  The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction … 454  The Black Codes … 455  The Radical Republicans … 456  The Origins of Civil Rights … 456  The Fourteenth Amendment … 457  The Reconstruction Act … 458  Impeachment and the Election of Grant … 458  The Fifteenth Amendment … 460  The “Great Constitutional Revolution” … 461  The Rights of Women … 461 R A D I C A L R E C O N S T R U C T I O N I N T H E S O U T H . . . 462 “The Tocsin of Freedom” … 462  The Black Officeholder … 464  Carpetbaggers and Scalawags … 464  Southern Republicans in Power … 465  The Quest for Prosperity … 465 T H E O V E R T H R O W O F R E C O N S T R U C T I O N . . . 466 Reconstruction’s Opponents … 466  “A Reign of Terror” … 467  The Liberal Republicans … 469  The North’s Retreat … 470  The Triumph of the Redeemers … 471  The Disputed Election and Bargain of 1877 … 472  The End of Reconstruction … 473 R E V I E W . . . 4 7 4 1 6 . A M E R I C A ’ S G I L D E D A G E , 1 8 7 0 – 1 8 9 0 . . . 4 7 5 T H E S E C O N D I N D U S T R I A L R E V O L U T I O N . . . 476 The Industrial Economy … 477  Railroads and the National Market … 478  The Spirit of Innovation … 479  Competition and Consolidation … 480  The Rise of Andrew Carnegie … 481  The C o n t e n t s v i i Triumph of John D. Rockefeller … 481  Workers’ Freedom in an Industrial Age … 482 T H E T R A N S F O R M A T I O N O F T H E W E S T . . . 483 A Diverse Region … 484  Farming in the Trans-Mississippi West … 485  The Cowboy and the Corporate West … 486  Conflict on the Mormon Frontier … 487  The Subjugation of the Plains Indians … 488  “Let Me Be a Free Man” … 489  Remaking Indian Life … 489  The Dawes Act and Wounded Knee … 490  Settler Societies and Global Wests … 491 Voices of Freedom: From Andrew Carnegie, “Wealth” (1889), and From Ira Steward, “A Second Declaration of Independence” (1879) … 492 P O L I T I C S I N A G I L D E D A G E . . . 494 The Corruption of Politics … 494  The Politics of Dead Center … 495  Government and the Economy … 496  Reform Legislation … 497  Political Conflict in the States … 497 F R E E D O M I N T H E G I L D E D A G E . . . 498 The Social Problem … 498  Social Darwinism in America … 499  Liberty of Contract and the Courts … 500 L A B O R A N D T H E R E P U B L I C . . . 501 “The Overwhelming Labor Question” … 501  The Knights of Labor and the “Conditions Essential to Liberty” … 502  Middle-Class Reformers … 502  Protestants and Moral Reform … 504  A Social Gospel … 504  The Haymarket Affair … 505  Labor and Politics … 506 R E V I E W . . . 5 0 7 1 7 . F R E E D O M ’ S B O U N D A R I E S , A T H O M E A N D A B R O A D , 1 8 9 0 – 1 9 0 0 . . . 5 0 8 T H E P O P U L I S T C H A L L E N G E . . . 510 The Farmers’ Revolt … 510  The People’s Party … 511  The Populist Platform … 512  The Populist Coalition … 513  The Government and Labor … 513  Populism and Labor … 514  Bryan and Free Silver … 515  The Campaign of 1896 … 516 T H E S E G R E G A T E D S O U T H . . . 517 The Redeemers in Power … 517  The Failure of the New South Dream … 517  Black Life in the South … 518  The Kansas Exodus … 518  The Decline of Black Politics … 519  The Elimination of Black Voting … 520  The Law of Segregation … 521  The Rise of Lynching … 522  Politics, Religion, and Memory … 523 R E D R A W I N G T H E B O U N D A R I E S . . . 524 The New Immigration and the New Nativism … 524  Chinese Exclusion and Chinese Rights … 525  The Emergence of v i i i Contents Booker T. Washington … 526  The Rise of the AFL … 527  The Women’s Era … 528 B E C O M I N G A W O R L D P O W E R . . . 529 The New Imperialism … 529  American Expansionism … 529  The Lure of Empire … 530  The “Splendid Little War” … 531  Roosevelt at San Juan Hill … 532  An American Empire … 533  The Philippine War … 535 Voices of Freedom: From Josiah Strong, Our Country (1885), and From “Aguinaldo’s Case against the United States” (1899) … 536 Citizens or Subjects? … 538  Drawing the Global Color Line … 539  “Republic or Empire?” … 539 R E V I E W . . . 5 4 2 1 8 . T H E P R O G R E S S I V E E R A , 1 9 0 0 – 1 9 1 6 . . . 5 4 3 A N U R B A N A G E A N D A C O N S U M E R S O C I E T Y . . . 545 Farms and Cities … 545  The Muckrakers … 546  Immigration as a Global Process … 546  The Immigrant Quest for Freedom … 548  Consumer Freedom … 548  The Working Woman … 549  The Rise of Fordism … 550  The Promise of Abundance … 550 V A R I E T I E S O F P R O G R E S S I V I S M . . . 551 Industrial Freedom … 552  The Socialist Presence and Eugene Debs … 552 Voices of Freedom: From Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics (1898), and From John Mitchell, “A Workingman’s Conception of Industrial Liberty” (1910) … 554 AFL and IWW … 556  The New Immigrants on Strike … 556  Labor and Civil Liberties … 557  The New Feminism … 558  The Birth- Control Movement … 558  Native American Progressivism … 559 T H E P O L I T I C S O F P R O G R E S S I V I S M . . . 559 Effective Freedom … 559  State and Local Reforms … 560  Progressive Democracy … 561  Jane Addams and Hull House … 562  The Campaign for Woman Suffrage … 563  Maternalist Reform … 564 T H E P R O G R E S S I V E P R E S I D E N T S . . . 566 Theodore Roosevelt … 566  John Muir and the Spirituality of Nature … 567  The Conservation Movement … 567  Taft in Office … 568  The Election of 1912 … 569  New Freedom and New Nationalism … 569  Wilson’s First Term … 570  The Expanding Role of Government … 571 R E V I E W . . . 5 7 3 C o n t e n t s i x 1 9 . S A F E F O R D E M O C R A C Y : T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S A N D W O R L D W A R I , 1 9 1 6 – 1 9 2 0 . . . 5 7 4 A N E R A O F I N T E R V E N T I O N . . . 576 “I Took the Canal Zone” … 576  The Roosevelt Corollary … 578  Moral Imperialism … 579  Wilson and Mexico … 579 A M E R I C A A N D T H E G R E A T W A R . . . 580 Neutrality and Preparedness … 581  The Road to War … 582  The Fourteen Points … 582 T H E W A R A T H O M E . . . 584 The Progressives’ War … 584  The Wartime State … 584  The Propaganda War … 585  The Coming of Woman Suffrage … 586  Prohibition … 587  Liberty in Wartime … 587 Voices of Freedom: From Eugene V. Debs, Speech to the Jury before Sentencing under the Espionage Act (1918), and From W. E. B. Du Bois, “Returning Soldiers,” The Crisis (1919) … 588 The Espionage Act … 590  Coercive Patriotism … 590 W H O I S A N A M E R I C A N ? . . . 591 The “Race Problem” … 591  The Anti-German Crusade … 592  Toward Immigration Restriction … 593  Groups Apart: Mexicans and Asian-Americans … 593  The Color Line … 594  Roosevelt, Wilson, and Race … 594  W. E. B. Du Bois and the Revival of Black Protest … 595  Closing Ranks … 596  The Great Migration … 596  Racial Violence, North and South … 597  The Rise of Garveyism … 598 1 9 1 9 . . . 599 A Worldwide Upsurge … 599  Upheaval in America … 599  The Red Scare … 600  Wilson at Versailles … 601  The Wilsonian Moment … 602  The Seeds of Wars to Come … 604  The Treaty Debate … 605 R E V I E W . . . 6 0 7 2 0 . F R O M B U S I N E S S C U L T U R E T O G R E A T D E P R E S S I O N : T H E T W E N T I E S , 1 9 2 0 – 1 9 3 2 . . . 6 0 8 T H E B U S I N E S S O F A M E R I C A . . . 610 A Decade of Prosperity … 610  A New Society … 611  The Limits of Prosperity … 612  The Farmers’ Plight … 612  The Image of Business … 613  The Decline of Labor … 613  The Equal Rights Amendment … 615  Women’s Freedom … 615 B U S I N E S S A N D G O V E R N M E N T . . . 616 The Republican Era … 617  Corruption in Government … 617  The Election of 1924 … 618  Economic Diplomacy … 618 T H E B I R T H O F C I V I L L I B E R T I E S . . . 619 A “Clear and Present Danger” … 620  The Court and Civil Liberties … 621 x Contents T H E C U L T U R E W A R S . . . 621 The Fundamentalist Revolt … 621  The Scopes Trial … 622  The Second Klan … 623  Closing the Golden Door … 624  Race and the Law … 625  Promoting Tolerance … 626  The Emergence of Harlem … 627 Voices of Freedom: From André Siegfried, “The Gulf Between,” Atlantic Monthly (March 1928), and From Majority Opinion, Justice James C. McReynolds, in Meyer v. Nebraska (1923) … 628 The Harlem Renaissance … 630 T H E G R E A T D E P R E S S I O N . . . 631 The Election of 1928 … 631  The Coming of the Depression … 632  Americans and the Depression … 633  Resignation and Protest … 635  Hoover’s Response … 636  The Worsening Economic Outlook … 636  Freedom in the Modern World … 637 R E V I E W . . . 6 3 8 2 1 . T H E N E W D E A L , 1 9 3 2 – 1 9 4 0 . . . 6 3 9 T H E F I R S T N E W D E A L . . . 641 FDR and the Election of 1932 … 641  The Coming of the New Deal … 642  The Banking Crisis … 642  The NRA … 643  Government Jobs … 644  Public-Works Projects … 645  The New Deal and Agriculture … 646  The New Deal and Housing … 647  The Court and the New Deal … 648 T H E G R A S S R O O T S R E V O L T . . . 648 Labor’s Great Upheaval … 648  The Rise of the CIO … 649  Labor and Politics … 650  Voices of Protest … 651  Religion on the Radio … 651 T H E S E C O N D N E W D E A L . . . 652 The WPA and the Wagner Act … 653  The American Welfare State: Social Security … 654 A R E C K O N I N G W I T H L I B E R T Y . . . 655 The Election of 1936 … 655 Voices of Freedom: From Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Fireside Chat” (1934), and From John Steinbeck, The Harvest Gypsies: On the Road to the Grapes of Wrath (1938) … 656 The Court Fight … 658  The End of the Second New Deal … 659 T H E L I M I T S O F C H A N G E . . . 660 The New Deal and American Women … 660  The Southern Veto … 661  The Stigma of Welfare … 661  The Indian New Deal … 662  The New Deal and Mexican-Americans … 662  Last Hired, First Fired … 663  Federal Discrimination … 664 A N E W C O N C E P T I O N O F A M E R I C A . . . 665 The Heyday of American Communism … 665  Redefining the People … 666  Challenging the Color Line … 667  Labor and Civil C o n t e n t s x i Liberties … 667  The End of the New Deal … 668  The New Deal in American History … 669 R E V I E W . . . 6 7 1 2 2 . F I G H T I N G F O R T H E F O U R F R E E D O M S : W O R L D W A R I I , 1 9 4 1 – 1 9 4 5 . . . 6 7 2 F I G H T I N G W O R L D W A R I I . . . 674 Good Neighbors … 674  The Road to War … 675  Isolationism … 675  War in Europe … 676  Toward Intervention … 677  Pearl Harbor … 677  The War in the Pacific … 678  The War in Europe … 679 T H E H O M E F R O N T . . . 682 Mobilizing for War … 682  Business and the War … 683  Labor in Wartime … 684  Fighting for the Four Freedoms … 684  The Fifth Freedom … 685  Women at War … 686 V I S I O N S O F P O S T W A R F R E E D O M . . . 687 Toward an American Century … 687  “The Way of Life of Free Men” … 688  The Road to Serfdom … 689 T H E A M E R I C A N D I L E M M A . . . 689 Patriotic Assimilation … 690  The Bracero Program … 690  Indians during the War … 691  Asian-Americans in Wartime … 691  Japanese- American Internment … 692  Blacks and the War … 694  Blacks and Military Service … 695  Birth of the Civil Rights Movement … 695  The Double-V … 696  The War and Race … 696  An American Dilemma … 697 Voices of Freedom: From Henry R. Luce, The American Century (1941), and From Charles H. Wesley, “The Negro Has Always Wanted the Four Freedoms,” in What the Negro Wants (1944) … 698 Black Internationalism … 700 T H E E N D O F T H E W A R . . . 700 “The Most Terrible Weapon” … 701  The Dawn of the Atomic Age … 701  The Nature of the War … 702  Planning the Postwar World … 703  Yalta and Bretton Woods … 703  The United Nations … 704  Peace, but not Harmony … 704 R E V I E W . . . 7 0 6 2 3 . T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S A N D T H E C O L D W A R , 1 9 4 5 – 1 9 5 3 . . . 7 0 7 O R I G I N S O F T H E C O L D W A R . . . 709 The Two Powers … 709  The Roots of Containment … 709  The Truman Doctrine … 710  The Marshall Plan … 711 x i i Contents  The Reconstruction of Japan … 712  The Berlin Blockade and NATO … 713  The Growing Communist Challenge … 713  The Korean War … 715  Cold War Critics … 717  Imperialism and Decolonization … 717 Voices of Freedom: From Will Herberg, Protestant, Catholic, Jew (1955), and From Henry Steele Commager, “Who Is Loyal to America?” in Harper’s (September 1947) … 718 T H E C O L D W A R A N D T H E I D E A O F F R E E D O M . . . 720 Freedom and Totalitarianism … 720  The Rise of Human Rights … 721  Ambiguities of Human Rights … 722 T H E T R U M A N P R E S I D E N C Y . . . 722 The Fair Deal … 722  The Postwar Strike Wave … 723  The Republican Resurgence … 723  Postwar Civil Rights … 724  To Secure These Rights … 725  The Dixiecrat and Wallace Revolts … 725 T H E A N T I C O M M U N I S T C R U S A D E . . . 727 Loyalty and Disloyalty … 728  The Spy Trials … 729  McCarthy and McCarthyism … 730  An Atmosphere of Fear … 731  The Uses of Anticommunism … 731  Anticommunist Politics … 732  Cold War Civil Rights … 733 R E V I E W . . . 7 3 5 2 4 . A N A F F L U E N T S O C I E T Y , 1 9 5 3 – 1 9 6 0 . . . 7 3 6 T H E G O L D E N A G E . . . 738 A Changing Economy … 738  A Suburban Nation … 739  The Growth of the West … 740  The TV World … 741  Women at Work and at Home … 741  A Segregated Landscape … 742  The Divided Society … 743  Religion and Anticommunism … 743  Selling Free Enterprise … 744  The Libertarian Conservatives and the New Conservatives … 744 T H E E I S E N H O W E R E R A . . . 745 Ike and Nixon … 745  The 1952 Campaign … 746  Modern Republicanism … 747  The Social Contract … 748  Massive Retaliation … 749  Ike and the Russians … 749  The Emergence of the Third World … 750  Origins of the Vietnam War … 751  Mass Society and Its Critics … 752  Rebels without a Cause … 753 T H E F R E E D O M M O V E M E N T . . . 754 Origins of the Movement … 755  The Legal Assault on Segregation … 755  The Brown Case … 757  The Montgomery Bus Boycott … 758  The Daybreak of Freedom … 758  The Leadership of King … 759  Massive Resistance … 760  Eisenhower and Civil Rights … 760 C o n t e n t s x i i i Voices of Freedom: From Richard Right, “I Choose Exile” (1950), and From The Southern Manifesto (1956) … 762 T H E E L E C T I O N O F 1 9 6 0 . . . 764 Kennedy and Nixon … 764  The End of the 1950s … 765 R E V I E W . . . 7 6 7 2 5 . T H E S I X T I E S , 1 9 6 0 – 1 9 6 8 . . . 7 6 8 T H E C I V I L R I G H T S R E V O L U T I O N . . . 770 The Rising Tide of Protest … 770  Birmingham … 771  The March on Washington … 772 T H E K E N N E D Y Y E A R S . . . 773 Kennedy and the World … 773  The Missile Crisis … 774  Kennedy and Civil Rights … 775 L Y N D O N J O H N S O N ’ S P R E S I D E N C Y . . . 776 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 … 776  Freedom Summer … 776  The 1964 Election … 777  The Conservative Sixties … 778  The Voting Rights Act … 780  Immigration Reform … 780  The Great Society … 781  The War on Poverty … 781  Freedom and Equality … 782 T H E C H A N G I N G B L A C K M O V E M E N T . . . 782 The Ghetto Uprisings … 783  Malcolm X … 784  The Rise of Black Power … 784 V I E T N A M A N D T H E N E W L E F T . . . 785 Old and New Lefts … 785  The Fading Consensus … 786  America and Vietnam … 787 Voices of Freedom: From Young Americans for Freedom, The Sharon Statement (September 1960), and From Tom Hayden and Others, The Port Huron Statement (June 1962) … 788 Lyndon Johnson’s War … 790  The Antiwar Movement … 792  The Counterculture … 793  Personal Liberation and the Free Individual … 793  Faith and the Counterculture … 794 T H E N E W M O V E M E N T S A N D T H E R I G H T S R E V O L U T I O N . . . 7 9 5 The Feminine Mystique … 795  Women’s Liberation … 796  Personal Freedom … 796  Gay Liberation … 797  Latino Activism … 797  Red Power … 798  Silent Spring … 798  The Rights Revolution … 799  The Right to Privacy … 801 1 9 6 8 . . . 802 A Year of Turmoil … 802  The Global 1968 … 803  Nixon’s Comeback … 804  The Legacy of the Sixties … 804 R E V I E W . . . 8 0 5 x i v Contents 2 6 . T H E T R I U M P H O F C O N S E R V A T I S M , 1 9 6 9 – 1 9 8 8 . . . 8 0 6 P R E S I D E N T N I X O N . . . 807 Nixon’s Domestic Policies … 808  Nixon and Welfare … 808  Nixon and Race … 809  The Burger Court … 809  The Continuing Sexual Revolution … 810  Nixon and Détente … 811 V I E T N A M A N D W A T E R G A T E . . . 813 Nixon and Vietnam … 813  The End of the Vietnam War … 814  Watergate … 815  Nixon’s Fall … 815 T H E E N D O F T H E G O L D E N A G E . . . 816 The Decline of Manufacturing … 816  Stagflation … 818  The Beleaguered Social Compact … 818  Ford as President … 819  The Carter Administration … 820  Carter and the Economic Crisis … 820  The Emergence of Human Rights Politics … 821  The Iran Crisis and Afghanistan … 822 T H E R I S I N G T I D E O F C O N S E R V A T I S M . . . 823 Voices of Freedom: From Redstockings Manifesto (1969), and From Jerry Falwell, Listen, America! (1980) … 824 The Religious Right … 826  The Battle over the Equal Rights Amendment … 827  The Abortion Controversy … 828  The Tax Revolt … 829  The Election of 1980 … 829 T H E R E A G A N R E V O L U T I O N . . . 830 Reagan and American Freedom … 830  Reaganomics … 831  Reagan and Labor … 831  The Problem of Inequality … 832  The Second Gilded Age … 833  Conservatives and Reagan … 834  Reagan and the Cold War … 834  The Iran-Contra Affair … 836  Reagan and Gorbachev … 836  Reagan’s Legacy … 837  The Election of 1988 … 837 R E V I E W . . . 8 3 9 2 7 . G L O B A L I Z A T I O N A N D I T S D I S C O N T E N T S , 1 9 8 9 – 2 0 0 0 . . . 8 4 0 T H E P O S T – C O L D W A R W O R L D . . . 842 The Crisis of Communism … 842  A New World Order? … 844  The Gulf War … 845  Visions of America’s Role … 845  The Election of Clinton … 845  Clinton in Office … 846  The “Freedom Revolution” … 847 Voices of Freedom: From Bill Clinton, Speech on Signing of NAFTA (1993), and From Global Exchange, Seattle, Declaration for Global Democracy (December 1999) … 848 Clinton’s Political Strategy … 850  Clinton and World Affairs … 851  Human Rights … 852 C o n t e n t s x v A N E W E C O N O M Y ? . . . 853 The Computer Revolution … 853  The Stock Market Boom and Bust … 854  The Enron Syndrome … 855  Fruits of Deregulation … 855  Rising Inequality … 856 C U L T U R E W A R S . . . 857 The Newest Immigrants … 858  The New Diversity … 859  African- Americans in the 1990s … 861  The Spread of Imprisonment … 862  The Continuing Rights Revolution … 863  Native Americans … 864  Multiculturalism … 865  “Family Values” in Retreat … 866  The Antigovernment Extreme … 866 I M P E A C H M E N T A N D T H E E L E C T I O N O F 2 0 0 0 . . . 867 The Impeachment of Clinton … 868  The Disputed Election … 868  A Challenged Democracy … 869 F R E E D O M A N D T H E N E W C E N T U R Y . . . 870 Exceptional America … 871 R E V I E W . . . 8 7 3 2 8 . A N E W C E N T U R Y A N D N E W C R I S E S . . . 8 7 4 T H E W A R O N T E R R O R I S M . . . 876 Bush before September 11 … 876  “They Hate Freedom” … 877  The Bush Doctrine … 877  The “Axis of Evil” … 878 A N A M E R I C A N E M P I R E ? . . . 878 Confronting Iraq … 879  The Iraq War … 880  The World and the War … 881 T H E A F T E R M A T H O F S E P T E M B E R 1 1 A T H O M E . . . 883 Security and Liberty … 883  The Power of the President … 883  The Torture Controversy … 884  The Economy under Bush … 885 T H E W I N D S O F C H A N G E . . . 885 The 2004 Election … 885  Bush’s Second Term … 886  Hurricane Katrina … 886  The Immigration Debate … 887  Islam, America, and the “Clash of Civilizations” … 888  The Constitution and Liberty … 889  The Court and the President … 890  The Midterm Elections of 2006 … 890  Th

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