History

American Portraits: Rosie the Riveter

United Press International, Geraldine Hoff, 1942. J. Howard Miller, We Can Do It!. Poster, 1942.

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Norman Rockwell, Rosie the Riveter, Saturday Evening Post, May 20, 1943.

Woman Ordnance Worker poster.

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Norman Rockwell, Rosie the Riveter, Saturday Evening Post, May 20, 1943.

HIST 180 Survey of American History

Benjamin Cawthra, Ph.D.

California State University, Fullerton

Age of Anxiety: The 1940s

Timeline: Age of Anxiety: The 1940s

The Popular Front

War and Changing America

The Four Freedoms

Victory in Europe

Victory in Japan

The Bomb

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1. Timeline: Age of Anxiety: The 1940s

1939 Germany invades Poland, starting World War II; conquers w. Europe in 1940.

1940 Roosevelt elected to third term.

Congress approves Lend-Lease; American supplies to Allies.

Japan attacks Pearl Harbor and the Philippines; US declares war.

1942 American troops driven from Philippines but win at Battle of Midway.

Japanese Americans moved to “relocation centers.”

Operation Overlord, Allied invasion of France.

Roosevelt elected to fourth term.

Firebombing of Tokyo and other Japanese cities.

Roosevelt dies. Harry S Truman becomes president.

Germany surrenders.

United States drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

Japan surrenders; World War II ends.

1947 Truman Doctrine calls for containment of communism.

Marshall Plan sends massive aid to Europe.

Truman elected president.

Soviet Union detonates atomic bomb.

Communist government controls China.

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2. The Popular Front

Peter Blume, The Eternal City, 1935-37.

Oil on canvas. 34 x 47. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Still from The Great Dictator, directed by Charlie Chaplin, 1940.

Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937.

Oil on canvas.

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Rockwell Kent, Bombs Away, 1942.

Oil on canvas.

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Joe Jones, American Justice (White Justice), 1933.

Oil on canvas.

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Lawrence Beitler, Lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith, August 7, 1930, Marion, Indiana.

Photograph.

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3. War and Changing America

Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, December 7, 1941.

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Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation, Portland.

Photograph. National Archives.

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FDR and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill aboard HMS Prince of Wales, 1941.

3. The Four Freedoms

Norman Rockwell, The Four Freedoms, 1943.

Poster, Office of War Information.

Henry Sugimoto, When Can We Go Home?, 1943.

Oil on canvas.

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Norman Rockwell, The Four Freedoms, 1943.

Poster, Office of War Information.

5. War in Europe: North Africa to Berlin

US troops landing at Oran in North Africa during Operation Torch, November 1942.

Robert Capa, Allies in Palermo, 1943, from Life.

Margaret Bourke-White, “The Forgotten Front,” Life, 1945.

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Robert F. Sargent, US First Division landing at Omaha Beach, June 6, 1944.

Photograph.

Landing Supplies at Normandy, 1944.

Photograph.

G. Beyer, Dresden after the Firebombing, 1945.

Photograph.

American soldiers in Ardennes, Battle of the Bulge, December 1944.

German V2 Rocket, 1944.

Soviet soldiers raise their flag over the German Reichstag, 1945.

Photograph. Russian State Archives.

Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower and generals view charred remains of prisoners at Ohrduf camp, 1945.

Photograph. United State Holocaust Memorial Museum.

6. Victory over Japan

What are YOU going to do about it?

U.S. Government poster.

W. Eugene Smith, Frontline Soldier with Canteen, June 1944.

Photograph.

W. Eugene Smith, Sticks and Stones, Bits of Human Bones, Marine Demolition Team Blasting Out Cave on Hill 382, Iwo Jima, March 1945.

Photograph.

W. Eugene Smith, Soldier Praying, Battle for the Rocky Crags, Okinawa, April 1945.

Photograph.

Ishikawa Kouyu, Dead civilians during firebombing of Tokyo, Japan, 1945.

Photograph.

7. The Bomb

Second atomic bomb detonates over Nagasaki, Japan, August 1945.

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“The world will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base. That was because we wished in this first attack to avoid, in so far as possible, the killing of civilians.”

President Harry S. Truman, 1945.

Hiroshima victim, 1945.

Article for Women’s Journal becomes a casualty of post-bomb censorship, 1945.

“I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives.”

Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1963.

Arshile Gorky, Charred Beloved II, 1946.

Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.

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