72. How did white violence impact the development of the civil rights movement?

A) It made no impact.

B) It helped to end the movement.

C) It revealed southern racism to the larger public, extending the movement.

D) It found approval as a tactic by the federal government, ending the movement.

73. What group did Martin Luther King, Jr., form to continue the civil rights struggle begun with the

Montgomery Bus Boycott?

A) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

B) Montgomery Bus Boycott League

C) Southern Christian Leadership Council

D) Congress of Racial Equality

74. What were the Freedom Rides?

A) an attempt by whites to destroy the SCLC and SNCC

B) an attempt to gain voting rights for blacks

C) an interracial ride by students on public transportation through the South

D) an effort by the Kennedy administration to publicize black problems in the North

75. What was Malcolm X’s view before 1964 about changing black people’s status in America?

A) He thought that police did not abuse black people.

B) He rejected integration with whites in any fashion.

C) He felt that real revolution would come only through peace with whites.

D) He hoped to work with the NAACP and Martin Luther King, Jr., to effect change.

76. How did Malcolm X’s views change after his visit to Mecca in 1964?

A) He began to favor segregation and subordination for blacks.

B) He renounced his former view that all whites were evil and racist.

C) He began speaking for the use of violence and force to overcome racism.

D) He began to insist that all blacks move to Africa.

77. What did Carmichael say that the slogan “Black Power” meant?

A) reverse discrimination, favoring blacks over whites in all areas and by any means


B) positive self-identity, racial pride, and independent economic and political power

C) the removal of segregation

D) Carmichael never really defined “Black Power.”

78. Why did the Black Panthers alarm white Americans?

A) They advocated self-defense and frequently patrolled black neighborhoods with guns.

B) They were stressing a return to segregation, which had become unpopular.

C) They advocated violence against all whites, regardless of political views.

D) They hoped to move all African Americans to Africa, thereby removing an important part

of the labor force.

African American History Final

79. Why was Berry Gordy significant in black music and life?

A) He was the first black presidential candidate and founded Motown.

B) He contributed to the civil rights movement through the production of black music and by

financing important ventures.

C) He helped to stop Detroit race riots, both in 1957 and 1967, by appealing to the black

community and police to avoid violence.

D) He was the primary politician behind the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

80. Why did colleges begin to form black studies departments in the late 1960s and early 1970s?

A) They began to feel that black studies were important, even before blacks became students


B) They were forced to form black studies departments by the Supreme Court.

C) More blacks entered white colleges and began to demand courses of relevance to them.

D) Local NAACP groups demanded such programs or they would riot and form protests.

81. How is Oprah Winfrey an example of black success in the twenty-first century?

A) Her writing career has made her the most highly acclaimed writer in the world.

B) Her acting career has made her the most highly acclaimed performer in the world.

C) Her singing career has made her the most successful black musician in the world.

D) Her media empire has made her the richest African-American woman in the world.

82. How did deindustrialization impact the black community in the late twentieth century?

A) It made no impact on the black community.

B) It produced many more industrial jobs in the U.S. for blacks.

C) It produced some new industrial jobs for blacks.

D) It led to a decrease in industrial jobs for blacks.

83. The impact of rap music popularized which musical term and genre?

A) bebop

B) hip-hop

C) classical

D) ragtime

84. Supporters of Afrocentricity argue that __________.

A) Europeans are actually the highest culture, and Africans should follow their lead.

B) America is a melting pot, bringing together many cultures, including Africans.

C) Africa should be only one of the main focal points of their study of history.

D) European civilization came from African origins, especially from Egypt.

85. What institution continued to be at the center of black life during the late twentieth century?

A) newspapers

B) rap music

C) churches

D) the NAACP

86. What is the connection between the Vatican, slavery, and African-American history?

A) No discernible connection exists.

B) Pope John Paul II apologized for the role of the Catholic Church in slavery.

C) Pope John Paul II apologized for the role of the Catholic Church in World War II.

D) Pope John Paul II apologized for the role of the Catholic Church in priest abuse of


African American History Final

87. What was a culminating event of Farrakhan’s leadership of the Nation of Islam?

A) his trip to Mecca

B) his denunciation of Jews

C) the Million Man March

D) his reaction to September 11

88. Where did most blacks live in the U.S. in 2000?

A) the northeastern states

B) the midwestern states

C) the southern states

D) the western states

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